تأثیر مناطق نمونه گردشگری در محرومیت‌زدایی از دیدگاه اجتماعات محلی (مطالعه موردی: منطقه اورامان‌تخت کردستان)

نویسندگان

چکیده

  چکیده   گردشگری به عنوان بزرگترین و پیچیده­ترین صنعت دنیا به شمار می رود. تنوع ابعاد و پیچیدگی­های صنعت گردشگری متناسب با مناطق جغرافیایی، زمینه­های ویژه­ای برای برنامه­ریزی و مدیریت گردشگری می­طلبد. در مناطقی که پتانسیل­های بالقوه فراوانی برای توسعه صنعت گردشگری دارند، اما روند مطلوبی را طی ننموده­اند، باید به دنبال عوامل و عناصری گشت، که سبب سرعت بخشیدن به حرکت کند جریان گردشگری هستند. هر چند توسعه گردشگری در مناطق مختلف راه حل کلی برای همه مسائل نیست، اما راهبردهای نوینی پیش­روی برنامه­ریزان و تصمیم­گیران مرتبط می­گذارد، که برای توسعه پایدار و کاهش محرومیت مناطق می­تواند مؤثر باشد. بر این اساس، هدف مقاله، بررسی وضعیت مناطق نمونه گردشگری در جهت محرومیت­زدایی از دیدگاه اجتماعات محلی است؛ به گونه­ای که سبب توسعه گردشگری و افزایش اشتغال محلی با شیوه­های مشارکتی گردد. روش تحقیق، توصیفی – تحلیلی و مبتنی بر مطالعات اسنادی و کتابخانه­ای و بررسی­های میدانی است. مطالعه موردی شامل منطقه نمونه گردشگردی اورامان­تخت است. داده­ها و اطلاعات به طرق مختلف مراجعه به سازمان­ها و مراکز مرتبط و بررسی­های پیمایشی و پرسشنامه جمع­آوری شدند، با استفاده از شیوه ارزیابی مشارکتی (PRA) قابلیت­ها و توانمندی­های منطقه اورامان در زمینه ایجاد اشتغال و به تبع آن محرومیت­زدایی مورد سنجش و ارزیابی قرار گرفت. آثار مؤلفه­های قابل انتظار در هفت گروه عمده و 71 زیرگروه بر اساس جاذبه­های گردشگری (9 دسته) منطقه اورامان در جهت محرومیت­زدایی بر اساس میانگین نمره (اهمیت)، وضعیت CPM مؤلفه­ها، ظرفیت ایجاد شده در منطقه و میانگین کل ارزشیابی شدند. نتایج نشان می­دهد، با توجه به ویژگی­های جغرافیایی و ظرفیت تحمل منطقه، ارزیابی CPM حکایت از غلبه همزمان فعالیت­های بخش گردشگری در منطقه مبتنی بر الگوی زنجیره­ای و منبع­گرا بودن دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Sample Areas of Tourism in the Eradication of Poverty from the Perspective of Local Communities (Case Study: Oraman -e-Takhat of Kurdistan Region)

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Hedayati
  • A. Kiani
  • A. Kiani
  • M. Tavakoly
چکیده [English]

  Effect of Sample Areas of Tourism in the Eradication of Poverty from the Perspective of Local Communities (Case Study: Oraman -e-Takhat of Kurdistan Region)     M. Tavakoly*   Assistant Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Zabol, Iran   A. Kiani   Assistant Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Zabol, Iran   S. Hedayati   M.A Student of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Zabol, Iran     1- Introduction   Tourism is considered as the world's largest and most complex industry. Diversity of dimensions and complexities of the tourism industry according to geographical areas demand special bases for planning and management of tourism. In areas which have abundant potentials for tourism development, but the process has not been good. The elements which have caused slow movement of tourism must be looked for. Although, tourism development in different areas is not a general solution for all problems, but it provides planners and decision makers with new strategies that can be effective for sustainable development and reducing deprivation of regions. Accordingly, the aim of the article is to study the sample areas of tourism for eradication of poverty from the perspective of local communities, so that it may cause the development of tourism and increase in local employment in participatory manners. Research methodology is descriptive and analytical and is based on documentary data and field surveys. This case study includes the tourism sample area of Oraman -e- Takhat. Data and information are collected in different ways such as referring to relevant agencies and centers, reviewed surveys and questionnaire and are measured and evaluated using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) capabilities and regional capabilities of Oraman in the field of employment creation and consequently the eradication of poverty.     2- Theoretical Bases   Today, several theoretical and administrative experiences exist to study, plan and manage the tourist areas which have an ascending trend along with the technological advances (Tsai & et al., 2010: 358). This trend and global issues related to the complexity of the tourism industry have caused combinatorial techniques and models to be focused on in recent years (Jerry Ho & et al., 2010: 10). So with the valuable global experiences and geographical conditions of the study area, the present study has been designed and conducted according to sources and conditions. The origin of PRA (Robert Chambers) is a way to plan development, review methods and draw conclusions in accordance with different sources (Adebo, 2000: 6). Because of this the attributes PRA is used in many fields. Noori, introducing the characteristics of PRA (Noori, 2002: 123-104)used the technique features in the master's thesis entitled "Performance Evaluation of Integrated Rural Services in Social Welfare, case study: Kordeh, Imam Taqi and Dahshak villages of Mashhad city. He has used top map in order to increase participation, obtain necessary information and get ideas (Noori, 2002: 329). Also, Hedayati used the mentioned technique in "Physical Development Plan of Oraman village using PRA. In Hedayati's thesis in PRA methods were used in a more detailed way. It is necessary to mention that his study is among the first activities which comprehensively deal with issues of physical development of Oraman emphasizing the participatory aspects (Hedayati, 2009: 214).   The first effort to develop a comprehensive plan for tourism in Iran was done about the year 1970 in the decades before the Islamic Revolution (Sinai, 2004: 56). Tourism is mentioned as an efficient catalyst for the reconstruction and economic and social development in underdeveloped areas, so that in recent years, in order to resolve economic and social challenges in different areas, tourism has been focused on across Europe (Sharply, 2002 : 233).     3- Discussion   The effects of expected components in 7 major groups and 71 subgroups are evaluated based on tourist attractions (9 categories) of Oraman for the eradication of poverty in the region on average score (importance), CPM components, created capacity in the region, and the average total.     4- Conclusion   Results show that according to the geographic characteristics and bearing capacity of the region, evaluation of CPM indicates simultaneous prevalence of tourism sector activities in the region based on the source-oriented and chain model. According to the steps of this technique and different positions, three scenarios are achieved to determine the growth rate was achieved and the number of tourists. These scenarios are used for estimating the number of tourists in the years 2017, 2023 and 2028. They are based on three hypotheses: continuing the past trends, optimistic (increase in average annual growth rate) and pessimistic (decrease in average annual growth rate) compared with past periods.     5- Suggestions   According to the assessments made and the results of the research, in order to improve and increase the tourism area of Orman to investigate the eradication of poverty, the followings are suggested:   - Requiring all executive agencies in performing necessary actions based on the tourism needs of Oraman region.   - To support and encourage the private sector to invest for providing welfare facilities.   - To reform and strengthen health supervision on places and units of manufacturing and providing tourism products.   - To activate voluntary groups and public agencies to identify tourist attractions.   - To focus on strategic and planning affairs for tourism development in Oraman region.   

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: Tourism Region
  • Oraman -e- Takhat
  • Eradication of poverty
  • Oraman
  • e
  • Takhat
  • PRA