اثرات آموزش‌های غیر رسمی بر توسعه اقتصادی روستاها (مطالعه موردی روستاهای شهرستان فریدن استان اصفهان)

نویسندگان

چکیده

  چکیده   یکی از شیوه های مورد عمل وزارت جهاد کشاورزی برای افزایش میزان عملکرد و بهره وری از منابع در مناطق روستایی، برگزاری آموزشهای غیر رسمی است. این تحقیق با هدف شناسایی آثار و پیامدهای اقتصادی این آموزشها در چارچوب پژوهش ارزشیابی و با استفاده از الگوی ارزشیابی شبه تجربی انجام گرفته است. در این الگو با تکمیل 262 پرسشنامه از خانوارهای روستایی در شهرستان فریدن، در قالب گروه تجربی و شاهد، اطلاعات لازم جمع آوری و تجزیه و تحلیل شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که در شاخص افزایش تولیدات دامی، تفاوت مشاهده شده بین دو گروه معنی دار و آموزشهای غیر رسمی در زمینه افزایش تولیدات دامی فراگیران مؤثر است. در شاخص بهبود و افزایش درآمد نیز تفاوت مشاهده شده بین دو گروه معنی دار و این آموزشها در بهبود نسبی درآمد دامداران روستایی مؤثر است. در شاخص افزایش سرمایه گذاری در امور دامداری تفاوت مشاهده شده بین دو گروه در خصوص متغیرهای دریافت وام، سرمایه گذاری در احداث جایگاه دام، سرمایه گذاری در بهسازی جایگاه دام، سرمایه گذاری در خرید وسایل و تجهیزات و سرمایه گذاری در سایر فعالیتهای دامداری، معنی دار و تنها درخصوص متغیر تمایل به دریافت دام دامداری و تمایل به افزایش دام تفاوت معنی دار است. لذا با توجه به اینکه آموزشهای غیر رسمی به عنوان یکی از روشهای مؤثر در بهبود و ارتقای سطح تولید و بهره وری نهایی، نوسازی شیوه های گوناگون تولید و توسعه اجتماعی و فرهنگی روستایی مؤثر است، فراهم نمودن امکانات کافی و مناسب در چهارچوب یک برنامه مشخص و مدوّن، ارائه این خدمات توسط اتحادیه های صنفی، شرکتهای تعاونی، سازمانهای غیر دولتی همراه با رفع مسائل و مشکلات دامداران و ارائه وسایل و ابزار خاص به صورت رایگان یا یارانه دار به فراگیران مد نظر قرار گیرد.   

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Non-officials Trainings, an Effective factor in rurals economic development process: case study of Fereydan rurals in Esfahan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Siefolahi
  • H. Barghi
  • Y. Ghanbari
چکیده [English]

  Non-officials Trainings, an Effective factor in rurals economic development process: case study of Fereydan rurals in Esfahan province     M. Siefolahi*   M.S. of Research affairs of Agricultural and Natural Source Center of Isfahan Province, Isfahan, Iran   H. Barghi   Assistant professor of Geography and Rural Pelanning, University of Isfahan, Iran   Y. Ghanbari   Assistant professor of Geography and Rural Pelanning, University of Isfahan, Iran     1- Introduction   By complicating the primary societies, educational needs gradually changed in format and method and school education was founded in its modern format. But school training couldn't reply human needs, specially in awareness and skills, for some reasons such as some restricted regulations and criteria, rapid change of knowledge and so on,. Therefore at the same time non school education was formed. This research has taken place to answer the following questions:   - What kinds of changes does non-school education make in rural households' economies?   - What are the clear and hidden effects and outcomes of such trainings?   - What should be done to increase the effectiveness of such training?     2. Theoretical Bases   Based on various view points, professionals have divided the education into different types. Despite the differences in classifications, division into two different categories, official and unofficial includes all types of trainings. Official education is the most codified and the most important method to transfer knowledge, experience and skills. It is divided into three periods: primary, secondary and higher education and tries to produce teachable people. This kind of knowledge is a base for the subsequent professional trainings to obtain jobs, and each period is designed to achieve certain aims.   Non-school training basically includes every out of schools program that assigned to training jobs and skills. These types of education have formed due to limitations of official ones in satisfying societies' needs, everyday conditions and progress capabilities and are going to be more important and cover a wide range of educations.     3- Discussion   The results show that in increase in animal products index, differences between two groups are significant and official training is effective for increasing animal products. In improvement and increase in the income index the difference between two groups is also significant and these trainings are effective in improving the rural rancher's relative income. In increase in investment for livestock index, the difference between two groups on variables such as loan reception, investment in construction for keeping animals, investment in renovation of the places for keeping animals, investment in purchasing equipment and investment in other activities is significant and only in tendency for receipting livestock loans and increasing the number of animals is not significant.     4- Conclusion   The economic impact of non school training is studied based on three general components, that is, increase in animal products, increase in investments and increase in incomes and some indices. In increase in animal products index, the differences in variables such as number of animals held, breast feeding rate and average weight of sold or slaughtered animals in two groups (experimental and witness) is significant. But the observed difference in variables such as livestock losses, lambed animals and number of animals in 0.05 levels is not significant. Also, the difference between two groups in total index is significant, too. Therefore, it can be said that non-school trainings for increasing animal products have been effective. In improvement and increase in income index variables such as purchased animals number, sold or slaughtered animals number, lambed animals number, costs of forage, medicine and veterinary are studied and no difference between two groups is observed. But differences in general index is significant since variables of animal products have been included. Therefore, it can be concluded that non-school trainings are effective in rural ranchers' relative income improvement.   In increase in investment index in livestock affairs, differences between two groups in variables of loan reception, investment in construction for keeping animals, investment in renovation of the places for keeping animals, investment in purchasing equipment and investment in other livestock activities are significant, but in tendency to receive livestock loans variable for increasing animals is not significant. Calculation of general index shows significant differences between two groups. Hence, it can be said that non-school training is effective in increasing trainer’s investment in livestock affairs.     5- Suggestions   Since non-school trainings are as one of effective methods for improving and upgrading the level of ultimate production and productivity, modernization of various ways of production and r social and cultural improvement of rural areas the followings are suggested:   - Within specific and codified framework, appropriate and enough opportunities be prepared continuously and coherently for operators and organizers of such courses, and the minimum (Threshold) of education be defined in order to make attitude, behavioral and skill changes in trainers.   - Enough infrastructures for these services are provided by cooperatives and non-governmental organizations with the assistance and help of state departments and while holding these courses the quality and quantity of courses, solving problems and issues of rural ranches be considered.      

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: Economic effects
  • non-official Extensional trainings
  • non
  • official Extensional trainings
  • Evaluation
  • Animals affairs
  • Feraydan town
  • Rural Regions