اعتماد اجتماعی و توسعه گردشگری

نویسندگان

چکیده

  چکیده   برنامه‌های مربوط به اوقات فراغت و توریسم به عنوان پدیده اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی مهمی تلقی می‌شوند. امروزه سیاحت و گردشگری به عنوان فعالیتی فرهنگی و اقتصادی در جوامع مختلف شناخته شده است. برخی صاحبنظران عقیده دارند که گردشگری به منزله نیروی محرک توسعه اقتصادی کشورهاست. با توجه به اهمیت گردشگری، هدف اصلی این مقاله تبیین جایگاه اعتماد گردشگران خارجی نسبت به ایرانیان در توسعه صنعت گردشگری است. در این تحقیق شاخص عینی سنجش توسعه گردشگری، میزان تمایل مجدد گردشگران خارجی برای سفر مجدد به ایران است. برای رسیدن به اهداف تحقیق از دو روش اسنادی ( با مطالعه پیشینه ومبانی نظری تحقیق) و میدانی (پیمایشی) استفاده شد. جامعه آماری این تحقیق را گردشگران خارجی از پنج قاره جهان تشکیل می دهند که با اهداف اقتصادی، اجتماعی، سیاسی، علمی، فرهنگی و تفریحی به ایران مسافرت کرده اند. تعداد 384 گردشگر به عنوان افراد نمونه انتخاب شدند. برای سنجش اعتماد از سه معرف "صداقت"، "تعهد" و "پذیرش" استفاده شده است. طبق نتایج 86 % از گردشگران دارای اعتماد متوسط رو به بالا به مردم ایران هستند و در ضمن 95% دارای تمایل متوسط رو به بالا برای سفر مجدد به ایران هستند. ضریب همبستگی بین دو متغیر اعتماد گردشگران و تمایل به سفر مجدد، همبستگی قابل ملاحظه (60/0= r ) و سطح معنی داری بسیار بالا (000/0 P= ) مشاهده می شود و چون این ضریب مثبت است، بیانگر وجود رابطه مستقیم میان این دو متغیر است. با توجه به مقدار ضریب تعیین ) 36/0 R2= ( حدود 36 درصد از تغییرات تمایل به سفر مجدد گردشگران توسط اعتماد آنان به ایرانیان قابل تبیین است. بنابراین، هرچه میزان اعتماد گردشگران نسیت به مردم ایران بالا رود، تمایل گردشگران به سفر مجدد به ایران نیز افزایش می یابد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Social Trust and Development of Tourism

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jafar Hezarjaribi
  • Malek Mohammad Najafi
چکیده [English]

  Social Trust and Development of Tourism     Jafar Hezarjaribi*   Associate Professor of Sociology, Allameh Tabatabaie University, Tehran, Iran   Malek Mohammad Najafi   Ph.D Student of Sociology, payamnor University, Tehran, Iran     1- Introduction   Introduction Relevant programs of leisure time and tourism are considered as important economical, social and cultural phenomena. Nowadays tourism has been recognized as a cultural and economical activity in various communities. Some theorists believe that tourism is as a motive force for countries economic development. Regarding the importance of tourism, the major purpose of this research is to determine trust’s position of foreign tourists to Iranians in development of tourism. In this research, the willingness of foreigner tourists to travell to Iran again? Is the objective index for measurement of tourism's development?   In order to achieve research's purposes, documentary methods including studying of background and theoretical principles of research and survey methods were used. Total population of the research subject, consist of foreigner tourists from five world's continents that have traveled to Iran with economic, social, political, scientific cultural, and recreational goals, 384 tourists were selected as sample size on the basis of choc ran formula.     2- Theoretical Bases   According to Giddens, concept of trust has been described as confidence in quality a kind of or characteristics or in truth of a statement. He believes that the concepts of trust and relationship are associated together. Colman (1990) regards trust as entering risk in deciding to interact with others and relates it to risk. So, a relationship based on trust is a mutual action and is on the basis of maximization of benefit under dangerous conditions. Francis Fukoyama deals with in an economic approach to the concept of trusit and his focus is on maintaining social capital as a certain collection of informal norms and informal values. According Fukuyama these values and norms should include moral values such as: honesty”, commitments and mutual communication.     3- Discussion   Finding In order to evaluate trust, 3 indicators including" honesty", "commitment" and "admission" have been used. According to results, 86% of tourists have a medium to upper level of trust to Iranians and 95% of tourists have a medium to upper level of willingness to travell to Iran again. corelational coefficient between two variables of tourist’s trust and having tendency for repeated trips, shows a considerable correlation (r =0. 60) and high significant level. Since it is positive, it indicates the existence of direct relationship between these two variables.   Regarding amount of explanation coefficient, about 36 % of changes in tourists willingness to repeated trip is explainable by their confidence to Iranians. So, the more tourist’s trust to Iranians, the more their tendency to repeated trips of Iran.     4- Conclusion   According to the results of this research, since the level of tourists trust to level of tourists to our country, is high so their willingness to repeated trip is high too. so public participation in global environment protection, cultural heritage and natural can be on effective factor in development of tourism industry of the country. In order to provid some possible solutions, tourism industry shoud be viewed form different perspective a nd obstacles shoud be removed.     5- Suggestions   tourists in order to attract tourists trust some precondition in different fields are required including.: - Education and informing people about the way to deal with tourists and tourism through development of relevant institutions and organizations, - To develop advertising programs to Introduce natural historical and etc. -To promote tourism education through provincial networks (in form of different meetings) to people of different regions using specialists. – To extend flight lines inside and outside of country and remove technical problem in road and bridges, - To standardize the accommodation facilities and services, - To encourag insurance companies to insurance cover to tourists.      

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Tourism
  • Tourist
  • Social Trust
  • development of tourism