بررسی و تحلیل رابطه امنیت تصرف قانونی و عرفی با میزان مشارکت خانوارها در طرح‌های بهسازی در محله اسلام‌آباد تهران

نویسندگان

چکیده

  چکیده   هدف مقاله حاضر، بررسی و تحلیل میزان تاثیرامنیت تصرف زمین، برانگیزه مشارکت خانوارهای ساکن در سکونتگاههای غیررسمی است. به همین منظور، محله غیررسمی اسلام آباد تهران به عنوان نمونه موردی انتخاب شده است. روش تحقیق دراین مقاله از نوع توصیفی و تحلیلی بوده و در آن از روش پیمایش وابزار پرسشنامه برای جمع آوری اطلاعات استفاده شده است. از تکنیک­های آماری آلفای کرونباخ، همبستگی پیرسون و جزئی، و تکنیک آماری رگرسیون چند متغیره برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده های خام پرسشنامه استفاده شده است. یافته­های تحقیق نشان می­دهد که بین شاخص قانونی نوع مالکیت خانوارها و انگیزه مشارکت آنها در طرح­های بهسازی رابطه معناداری وجود ندارد. این بدان معناست که همه خانوارهای نمونه آماری ( سنددار، قولنامه ای و غیره ) تقریبا به یک اندازه تمایل به مشارکت با سازمان­های محلی و دولتی دارند. در عین حال، نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که بین شاخص­های فراقانونی و متغیر وابسته، انگیزه مشارکت خانوارها در طرح های بهسازی رابطه معنی­دار مثبتی وجود دارد؛ به طوری که بالا بودن شاخصهای فوق، منجر به بالا رفتن انگیزه مشارکت خانوارها در طرح­های بهسازی می شود. همچنین نتایج تحقیق نشان دادکه بین شاخص­ میزان درآمد خانوار و شاخصهای امنیت تصرف زمین و انگیزه مشارکت خانوارها رابطه معنادار مثبت وجود دارد و بالا بودن آن، به افزایش میزان امنیت تصرف ادراکی خانوارها و همچنین افزایش میزان همکاری خانوارها با سازمان­های دولتی، محلی و غیره منجر می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Title: Examining and Analyzing of the Role of Land Legal and De-Facto Tenure Security in the Level of Residents Participation in Improvement Programs: The Case Study of Eslamabad Neighborhood of Tehran, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bahram Alizadeh
  • Mojtaba Rafieian
  • Hashem Dadashpoor
چکیده [English]

Title: Examining and Analyzing of the Role of Land Legal and De-Facto Tenure Security in the Level of Residents Participation in Improvement Programs: The Case Study of Eslamabad Neighborhood of Tehran, Iran     Hashem Dadashpoor*   Assistant Professor of Urban and Regional Planning, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran   Bahram Alizadeh   MA in Urban and Regional Planning, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran   Mojtaba Rafieian   Associate Professor of Urban Planning, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran   1- Introduction Informal settlement is the last shelter of urban poor for gaining a house. These settlements are faced with many challenges including: hygienic and ecological problems, population density, cultural and socio-economic poverty, low quality services and facilities, informal employment and illegal tenure. It is true that these settlements are deprived from legal tenure security (legal document of ownership) and all the time there is probability of their evacuation by municipal authorities but there are illegal or extra-legal factors which give their residents the hope and motivation to stay in these settlements. These legal and illegal factors together affect economic, social, political and physical conditions of residents. Case Study: The Eslamabad neighborhood with 75 hectares is located in the south region of Tehran is the case study of this research. Now, almost 1082 households live there and there are 1,059 residential units in this settlement. Its population is more than 3747 persons with sex ratio 104(Iran Statistical Center, 2006). Economy of this region depends more on informal market and most of the residents in this neighborhood work in false jobs (colportage, flower shop, smoke shop, etc). ( See table 1-1).     Table (1-1): Social and economic information of Eslamabad neighborhood Population Household Housing unit Employment Unemployment sex ratio (3747)104 1082 1059   (330%) 1254   (60%) 223     1-2- Goal and Hypothesis of the Study: The main aim of this study is to analyze the effects of tenure security on Eslamabad household participation in improvement programs, and its hypothesis is: "it seems that there are a meaningful relationship between tenure security and the level of household participation in improvement programs in informal neighborhood of Eslamabad".   1-3- Methodology of the Study: The survey-based method is used as the methodology of the present research. With regard to the method, questionnaires are prepared and completed in Eslamabad neighborhood. The collected data is analyzed in SPSS software using statistical techniques of Pearson-correlation, Partial-correlation, Cronbach-alpha and Multiple-Regressions. A total of 101 households participated in the survey whose average age is 51 years and average income is was about 300 to 400 dollars. Data collection took place during July, 2010.     2- Theoretical Bases   According to Habitat Organization, tenure security is "the ability to live in a place without the fear of eviction from that place" but this definition has changed in recent years . Since 2003, tenure security concept has receded from its legal definition and moved towards the social-psychological discussions. Based on recent findings, tenure security is a concept with three dimensions i.e. Legal, De-facto and Perception and highlighted indices of these dimensions are respectively: legal (such as legal title), extra-legal (such as the power and coherence of community organization, size of the settlements, support of political figures, duration of occupation, providing infrastructure facilities and so on) and perception (and probability of eviction fear of eviction) indices. Based on these three dimensions, different approaches for enhancing tenure security in informal settlements have been considered. In initial/traditional approaches only legal indices was emphasized, while in new approaches all three dimensions of tenure security has been considered. Following new approaches in this study, both legal and extra-legal indices are used to investigate the tenure security in Eslamabad neighborhood.     3- Discussion - Legal tenure security: In this study four kinds of existing tenure systems are used to measure the legal tenure security. The first tenure system, ‘squatters’, included dwellers who have illegally occupied their housing lands and had no document attesting a legal claim to that land. Therefore, this category lacks legal tenure security. The second kind of tenure system included residents who claimed to have bought their lands by agreement from an original owner, but they had no document to prove their statements. The third kind of tenure system, informal owners, included residents who gained their dwelling by purchasing it and had a title deed, but they do not have legal title, due to the lack of one of the requirements for registration or no registration implementation. The fourth group has met all legal requirements and is termed ‘registered owners. - De-facto tenure security: In this study, three extra-legal indices, duration of occupation, providing infrastructure facilities by municipality the power and coherence of community organization, are used to measure the de facto tenure security.   - the level of household participation in improvement program: In this study, three indices of "the level of importance of neighborhood problems, the level of intention to solve neighborhood problems and the amount of household cooperation in solving of neighborhood problems" are used.     4- Conclusion Findings of the study show that: -There is no significant relationship between legal tenure security and the level of household participation in Eslamabab, which means that ownership kind of household has no effect on the level of households' participation in improvement programs, - De facto tenure security is an important factor in this neighborhood and has positive effect on the level of household participation in improvement programs. This security is based on extra-legal indices such as duration of occupation, providing infrastructure facilities and the power and coherence of community organization, - The level of income of household correlate significantly (and positively) with the level of household participation in improvement programs and tenure security: Richer households are more likely to participate in improvement programs and also their tenure security is high.   5- Suggestions Suggestions of this study are:   - To enhance the level of household participation and tenure security in Eslamabad informal settlements improving programs should focus more on de facto tenure, and consider it as an opportunity.   - Upgrading programs in the informal settlement should focus on the customary properties in the short-term and providing title-deeds in the long-term.   - Succession of improving programs in informal settlements depends on the amount of their attention to decrease of poverty.      

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Informal settlement
  • Legal tenure security
  • De facto tenure security
  • Household’s participation
  • Tehran Metropolis
  • Islamabad Neighborhood