تحلیلی بر گونه شناسی پارک‌های شهری استان آذربایجان شرقی با استفاده از مدل تحلیلی گرانز

نویسندگان

چکیده

چکیدهدر سال های اخیر افزایش سریع جمعیت شهری و شهرنشینی، موجب افزایش تراکم مسکن و فشردگی فضاهای شهری و در نتیجه هویدایی نیاز بیشتر به هوای سالم و محیط سالم شده است و در شرایط رشد فزاینده بیماری های روحی و روانی، افزایش استرس و توسعه آلودگی های شهری، توجه و نیاز شهروندان به مکان های با طراوت سبز و تفرجگاهی توسعه یافته است. در چنین شرایطی، لزوم تحقیق، پرده گشایی و تحلیل وضعیت کاربری های سبزشهری، هرچه بیشتر مطرح می گردد. هدف این تحقیق، بررسی و تحلیل سیر تحول تاریخی ایجاد پارک و فضاهای تفرجگاهی در شهرهای استان آذربایجان شرقی در طی سده اخیر با استفاده از مدل تحلیلی "گرانز" است تا بیانگر تفاوت ها و مشابهت هایی بین اندیشه های تئوریک و اقدامات اجرایی در مقوله فضای سبز در شهرداری ها باشد. روش مورد استفاده در تحقیق روش مقایسه ای- تحلیلی است و بخش عمده اطلاعات مورد نیاز تحقیق از طریق تکمیل پرسشنامه ویژه تحقیق به دست آمده و بخش دیگری نیز با استفاده از آمارهای موجود و کتابخانه ای حاصل شده است. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد: در نگرش شهرداری ها و مشاوران تهیه کننده طرح های شهری، به انواع فضاهای سبزشهری تفاوت های زیادی وجود دارد و این امر با اندازه جمعیتی و طبقه شهری در ارتباط بوده است. همچنین، مشابهت هایی در الگوی ترکیب پارک های شهری در ایران و جهان با توجه به مدل "گرانز" مشاهده نمی گردد و با توجه به موفقیت نسبتاّ ناچیز طرح های توسعه شهری در ایجاد فضاهای سبزشهری، با تحقق 8/26٪ پیشنهادهای طرح ها، لزوم تلاش بیشتر در ایجاد فضاهای سبزشهری، خصوصاّ ایجاد پارک هایی از نوع اول و پنجم مدل "گرانز" به عنوان بهترین راه کار، مطرح است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Analysis on urban park Typology in the Cities of East Azerbaijan Province, With Using the

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Beheshti rouy
  • M. R. Pourmohammadi
  • M. R. Pourmohammadi
  • R. Ghorbani
چکیده [English]

  An Analysis on urban park Typology in the Cities of East Azerbaijan   Province, With Using the "Galen Cranz" Model       R. Ghorbani   Associate professor in Geography and urban planning, university of Tabriz, Iran   M. R. Pourmohammadi   Professor in Geography and urban planning, university of Tabriz, Iran   M. Beheshti rouy   Ph. D.Student in Geography and urban planning, university of Tabriz, Iran     Extended abstracts  1- Introduction   Urban parks are spaces that designed and constructed within urban boundaries and provide health public outdoor recreation for urban residence. These spaces have continued the relation between residences and nature in built area as one of main elements of urban structure. In reality these spaces are important sector of framework and morphology of current cities and they must make pleasant environment and provide other ecological needs and important sector of urban green spaces.   With regards to importance of urban parks and green spaces in improvement of urban life, we an academic research is needed for increasing its function in the present urban environment condition.     2- Theoretical Bases   Study and analysis of literature review of urban park areas show that the all forms of parks are constructed and used with regard to important human needs such as refreshment, fun, growth ,efflorescence, satisfying aesthetic need, mental needs paying less attention to quality, distance, function and theirs accessability.   During 150 past years, parks has replaced the urban gardens as effective approach with wide ecological affects. Parks were classified according to their size, facilities, situation, valence, accessibility and etc.   The researches in history of urban planning show that the urban planning paradigm has had effective function in historical change of parks and green space planning in different countries of world. All kind of parks have constructed from special ideas.   Also ,These researche shows that the first attempts for urban parks construction formed in thoughts of earlier town planner such as San Simon, Robert Owen, F.M.S. Forieh, Atin Kabeh who considered the urban parks as having great importance function in their ideal city.   Since 1910 there have be three new opinions effecting the planning and design of parks and green spaces efforts.   Modernism Urban planners, affected by ATTENS charter, predicted suitable place for leisure activity within and around cities adapting international urbanism approaches. Also they have paid attention to balance between built area and open space in cities.   Cultural urban planners, attended to foot path, mix uses, Multi-functional urban spaces and planning spatial parks for any cities with emphasizs on natural symbols.   Finally the natural urban planners, paying attention to naure have attempted to creat organic human settlement in balance with nature. They also proposed the idea of "city as park".   "Granz" Suggess a model for analyzing the urban parks planning theories in the past 150 years. (the middle of the nineteen century to end of twentieth century) .His researches findings show that the theories and views about urban parks have changed during 30-35 years and replaced with new paradigm ideas changing from confronting with nature and cultural considerations to confirming with nature and cultural needs.   the first use of this model in evaluation of parks constructen in 2 decades of 1980 and 1990 shows that (Table 1): type 4 parks with 43 percent is basic form of park constracted and the parks of type 5 with 24 percent and the parks of type 1 with 22 percent are in the next place. Namely 90 percent of parks like in 3 types (type1, 4, 5) and parks type 1& 5 have a good lot with recreation nature.     Table 1- Evaluation of parks type constracted in decades of 1980 to 1990   parks name   percent   parks type   1-The Pleasure Ground   22.0   2- The Reform Park   11.0   3- The Recreation Facility   4-The Open Space System   43.0   5- The Ecological Park   24.0     In world cities (Sources: Galen Granz and Michael Boland,( 2004) "Defining the Sustainable Park: A Fifth Model for Urban Parks," Landscape Journal, Fall, 20 pp)     3- Discussion   In this paper, historical development process of urban parks in East Azerbaijan cities during last one hundred years using "Granz" model to determine whether parks in the country have faced charges according to changesin ideas.   In this paper, the cities of Eastern Azerbaijan province that have approved urban development plan with a population of 2. 3 million people in the year 1388 were studied. Only three cities does not have any park and 277 parks located in 27 city are analyzed based on characteristics, size per capita, years of construction, and many kinds of facilities.   The findings of research show that the beginning of parks construction process in this province has been delayed about 80 years in comparison with developed countries. The 85 percent of whole parks constructed of type 20 years and 72.2 percent of parks are in rank "The Open Space System" 21.4 percent of parks are of type "Reform Park" and only 14parks (5 percent of parks) are of type "Pleasure Ground”. Also, a small part of parks are in the rank of “The Recreation Facility" and no of "Ecological Park" is constraction (Table 2).     Table 2- Evaluation of parks type generate into decade from 1930 to 2010   parks name   percent   parks type   1-The Pleasure Ground   5.0   2- The Reform Park   21.4   3- The Recreation Facility   1.4   4-The Open Space System   72.2   5- The Ecological Park   0.0     In East Azerbaijan cities (Sources: Data provided by m.Beheshti, 2010)     4- Conclusion   The study and analysis of finding of this research have some main results: First, there are so many differences between cities requirement and city planning designers' ideas about types of green spaces in cities due to size and classification of city population. Meanwhile there are no similarities between urban parks in Iran and developed countries. Second, there are no comprehensive program in green space planning in this province and urban plans in creating green spaces in cities pay more attention to green spaces at the 1st and 5th types of Granz model and less achievements are made in this regards (with receiving 26.8% of plans goals).         5- Suggestions   The developing of green spaces in Eastern Azerbaijan province cities researches need to be done in order to familiar the local authorities and consultant with new theories in park design by establishing and developing the local and national policy the goals of developing green spaces can be achived.   It is necessary to reconsider the goale in creation of urban parks based on analytical analysis modern ecogical the ories bias order to over com the shortcomings and achiving green cities more attempts shoud be don to construct move parks compatible with nature and culture.   Keywords: urban green space, Eastern Azerbaijan cities, the Granz analysis model  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: urban green space
  • Eastern Azerbaijan cities
  • the Granz analysis model