آگاهی زنان از حقوق شهروندی و عوامل موثر بر آن

نویسندگان

چکیده

    هدف این پژوهش بررسی میزان آگاهی زنان از حقوق شهروندی و عوامل مؤثر بر آن در بین زنان شاغل در شهرداری تهران است ، که به صورت استخدام رسمی یا قرارداری در این سازمان مشغول به‌کار هستند. دیدگاه‌های مختلف در رابطه با حقوق شهروندی بررسی و نظرات هابرماس، پارسونز، مارکس، ترنر به منظور چارچوب نظری انتخاب و فرضیات تحقیق که شامل وجود رابطه بین متغیرهایی چون میزان حضور در عرصه عمومی، نگرش به حقوق شهروندی، پایگاه اجتماعی، میزان استفاده از رسانه‌های ارتباط جمعی با میزان آگاهی از حقوق شهروندی بوده ، تدوین گردیده است. روش تحقیق، تبیینی از نوع پیمایش است و تکنیک جمع‌آوری داده‌ها پرسشنامه محقق ‌ساخته‌ است. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه زنان شاغل در شهرداری تهران است که در زمان تکمیل پرسشنامه در این سازمان حضور داشته‌اند. برای برآورد حجم نمونه با استفاده از فرمول کوکران، تعداد270 نفر از جامعه آماری1842نفری را انتخاب نموده‌ایم. روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه‌ای چند مرحله‌ای است. داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار SPSS تجزیه و تحلیل شده‌اند و از آزمون‌های کندال تای بی و گاما برای همبستگی‌های ترتیبی و آزمون کای اسکوئر برای سطح اسمی – ترتیبی در جداول متقاطع توافقی و همچنین تحلیل چند متغیره رگرسیونی و تکنیک تحلیل مسیر استفاده شده است. متغیر وابسته این پژوهش میزان آگاهی از حقوق شهروندی بوده، که به تفکیک به صورت آگاهی از حقوق مدنی ، آگاهی از حقوق سیاسی ، آگاهی حقوق فرهنگی ، آگاهی از حقوق اجتماعی، آگاهی از حقوق جنسیتی مورد سنجش قرار گرفته است. میانگین نمره آگاهی از حقوق شهروندی پاسخگویان برابر32/11 با انحراف معیار 726/0 است . دامنه تغییرات نمره پاسخگویان در این متغیر از 0 تا 18 به دست آمده است و در نهایت 2/35 درصد از پاسخگویان آگاهی پایینی از حقوق شهروندی داشتند، 6/45 درصد آگاهی متوسط و تنها 3/19 درصد از آگاهی بالایی برخوردار بوده‌اند. میزان حضور در عرصه عمومی، میزان استفاده از رسانه‌های جمعی، پایگاه اقتصادی اجتماعی و نگرش به حقوق شهروندی با میزان آگاهی زنان از حقوق شهروندی ارتباط معنی داری داشته‌اند.     

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Women’s Awareness about Citizenship Rights and the Effective Factors on it

نویسندگان [English]

  • J. Hezarjaribi
  • A. Amanian
چکیده [English]

  Women’s Awareness about Citizenship Rights and the Effective Factors on it     J. Hezarjaribi.   Associate Professor of Social Sciences, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran    e-mail: jafar_hezar@yahoo.com    A. Amanian.  Ph.D student in social welfare, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran    Received: 16 October 2010 / Accepted: 14 May 2011, 1-3 P     Extended abstract   1- Intro duction   The issue of citizenship and how citizens make sense of the concept is increasingly the subject of social research. Citizenship as a multi dimensional concept, offers the capacity for an exploration of the dynamics of social division to take in a number of important dimensions (class, gender, race, disability, age and so on) when assessing both the levels and causes of inequality within a society. This research tries to survey women’s awareness about citizenship rights and the effective factors on it.     2- Theoretical Bases   In this study, different views on citizenship rights and opinions of Marx (Class, conciseness and citizenship rights), Habermas (civil society and Public Sphere), Turner (Mass media role) and Parsons (Particularism – Universalism) were used to establish a       theoretical framework and design research hypotheses including being a correlation between the degree of attending public spheres, socioeconomic status, usage of mass media and awareness about citizenship rights.     3- Discussion   This is a descriptive measurement study using a questionnaire designed by the researchers. The study population was all the women employed in municipal offices at the time of the study. Estimating the sample size, we used a stratified cluster sampling method and Cochran formula were applied and 270 people were from current female municipal workers of Tehran in 2010. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. To complete the analysis Kendal's tau-b and Gamma tests, Chi-Squared test and multiple variable regression analysis methods were also used to analyze our data as properly as possible. The dependant variable studied in this research was the level of awareness about citizenship rights which was categorized to civil, political, cultural, social and gender-based rights. The independent variables included the degree of attending public spheres, socioeconomic status, and usage of mass media. The mean score of awareness on citizenship rights was 11.32 with SD=0.726. The range of scores was from 0 to 18. The study showed that 35.2% of participants in the survey had a low awareness of citizenship rights, 45.6% of them had a moderate awareness of citizenship rights and only 19.3% of the participants had a high level of awareness of the citizenship rights studied in this research.     4- Conclusion   There was a significant correlation between the degree of attending public spheres, socioeconomic status, and usage of mass media, and level of awareness of citizenship rights which proved the hypothesis. Even by excluding educational level from the data analysis, there was still a significant correlation between the dependant and independent variables. According to regression analysis, the most important predictor of awareness about citizenship rights was the degree of attending public spheres.     5- Suggestions   Citizenship and culture of citizenship are vintages of responsibility and commitments of different society elements such as state, private and public sphere that shape civil society. According to results of this study we fallowing recommendations are suggested:   5-1- Strategic education planning for women and other citizens about their rights, obligations and identities.   5-2- Strategic planning for institutionalization of citizenship rights and obligations in public and private sphere, studying citizenship values, reinforcement of universalism and civic ethics to increase awareness about citizenship rights to achieve active citizenship.   Key Words : Citizenship Rights, Women’s Awareness, Mass Media, Public Sphere     References     Ahmadi, F. (2004). The impact of awareness about citizenship rights and obligations in City on citizenship rights achievement process. MA thesis. Al Zahra University.   Ansari, M. (2005). Negotiated Democracy. Tehran. Markaz publication.   Castels, Stephen & Davidson, Albester, (2003). Citizenship and Migration. Translated by: Faramarz Taghiloo. Tehran. Strategic studies Center pub.   Faulk, k. (2000). Citizenship . London Rutledge.   Fitzpatick, T. (2002). Welfare Theory. Translated by: Hormoz Homayon pour. Game no publication.   Hesam, Farahnaz, (2002). Citizenship Identity. Andishe va Raftar. No 51.   Lister, R. (1997). Citizenship: Feminist perspectives. Basingstoke: Macmillan.   Oliver, dawn & Heater, derrick, (1994). The foundations of citizen ship , create Britain : harvester wheat sheaf.   Prior, W. (2000). The Australian experience of preparing schools communities for citizenship education – our civic duty? Paper presented at SLO International conference, SLO, Enscheda – The Nether Land   Rabo, A. ( 1996). GENDER ,State and civil society in Jordan and Syria , in c. hank and E Dunn, challenging western Model. London Rutledge.   Roberts, b. (2000). The social context of citizen ship in Latin America, oxford. oxford university press.   Shiani, M. (2005). Citizenship and participation in Social security and welfare system. Quarterly Journal of social Welfare, No 17.   Shiani, M. (2002). A sociological analysis of citizenship condition in Lorestan. Journal of Iranian Sociology Association. No 3.   Shiani, M. (2003). Citizenship condition and achievement obstacles. PhD thesis in Sociology. Allame Tabatabaei University.   Shiani, M. (2004). Poverty, Deprivation and citizenship. Quarterly Journal of social Welfare, No 27.   Tavasoli. G., & Nejatihosseini, M. (2004). Social reality of Citizenship in Iran. Journal of Iranian Sociology Association. No 3.   Walby, S. (1998). Gender Transformation. London :Rutledge   William, R, (1997), Hegel s ethics of Recognition. California University of California Press.   Zokaie, M. (2001). Citizenship Ethics. Journal of Iranian Sociology Association. No 5.    

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Citizenship Rights
  • Women’s Awareness
  • Mass Media
  • public sphere