ارزیابی پیامدهای فضایی استقرار شهرک‌های صنعتی در نواحی روستایی (بخش مرکزی شهرستان مینودشت)

نویسندگان

چکیده

احداث صنایع و استقرار فعالیت‌های صنعتی در قالب شهرک‌ها در نواحی روستایی از جمله پدیده‌هایی است که پیامد‌های گوناگونی در بر داشته است. از این رو پژوهش حاضر با توجه به اهمیت موضوع، به ارزیابی این پیامدها در ابعاد مختلف فضایی پرداخته است. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش توصیفی، تحلیلی است. جامعه آماری، آن دسته از شاغلان شهرک صنعتی مینودشت هستند که در روستاهای بخش مرکزی این شهرستان سکونت دارند که با استفاده از فرمول نمونه گیری کوکران، حجم نمونه 114 نفر برآورد، و به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی نمونه‌ها انتخاب شدند. و داده‌های حاصل از پرسشنامه با استفاده از نرم افزار spss تجزیه وتحلیل شدند. جهت تعیین میزان تغییرات اجتماعی و اقتصادی در زندگی روستاییان در دو وضعیت قبل و بعد اشتغال، در شهرک صنعتی و همچنین سنجش تغییرات محیطی-کالبدی در اطراف شهرک؛ از آزمون‌های ناپارامتری ویلکاکسون و مک نمار و آزمون‌های توصیفی استفاده شد. یافته‌ها بیانگر آن است که، استقرار شهرک صنعتی در ناحیه مورد مطالعه، پیامدها و تغییرات مختلفی به جای گذاشته است. ایجاد اشتغال و کسب درآمد به طور مستقیم برای تعدادی از روستاییان از جمله آثار مثبت این شهرک است؛ اکثریت این افراد قبل از اشتغال در بخش صنعت، در فعالیت‌های کشاورزی مشغول بوده‌اند که تعداد زیادی از آنها پس از اشتغال در شهرک صنعتی، فعالیت‌های کشاورزی خود را رها کرده‌اند. همچنین حدود یک سوم از شاغلان روستایی شهرک را زنان تشکیل می دهند که این مطلب نشان دهنده عملکرد مثبت استقرار صنایع در این ناحیه در زمینه اشتغال زنان است. نتایج به دست آمده از آزمون ویلکاکسون درمورد مولفه‌های میزان درآمد و پس انداز شاغلین روستایی، رضایت شغلی، امنیت شغلی، میزان تمایل برای ادامه زندگی در روستا، وضعیت مسافرت و تفریح، بهبود وضعیت بهداشت و درمان، گویای تفاوت معنا داری است. همچنین نتایج به دست آمده از آزمون مک نمار، در رابطه با مولفه‌های مربوط به الگوی مصرف و کیفیت زندگی تفاوت‌های معناداری را در دو دوره قبل و بعد از اشتغال در شهرک صنعتی، نشان می‌دهد. در زمینه پیامدهای محیطی- کالبدی از آزمون‌های توصیفی استفاده شد؛ با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده از مهمترین پیامدها در این بعد، می توان به آلودگی هوا، تغییر کاربری وسیع زمین‌های کشاورزی مرغوب و تغییر در چشم انداز‌های محیطی اشاره کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of spatial consequences of establishment of industrial towns in rural areas (case stady central part of Minudasht)

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Toorani
  • S. H. Motiee Langroodi
  • R. Soleimangoli
چکیده [English]

  Assessment of spatial consequences of establishment of industrial towns in rural areas (case stady central part of Minudasht)    S. H. Motiee Langroodi, Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran   e-mail: shmotiee@ut.ac.ir  A. Toorani. M.A of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran  R. Soleimangoli, M.A of Geography and Rural Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran   Received: 4 Desember 2010 / Accepted: 14 May 2011, 7-10 P     Extended abstract   1- Intro duction   The rural areas are considered as limited geographical regions developed over time from the impacts of human activities on the environment, in one hand, and the effects of external forces on the regions on the other. The rural economy plays an essential role in the location, residence survival, production of wealth, and employment creation. Agricultural activities are as initial foundations of economics in rural areas but today it is essential to pay more attention to non-agricultural activities and seek to find new ways of subsistence based on the rural intrinsic sources. Therefore, since the World War II many developing countries have taken industrialization and establishment of industries in rural areas as industrial towns into account, in order to achieve the social and economic development especially in these areas.   Thus, the objective of this paper is to assess the spatial outcomes of such activities in these areas. The purposes of the study can be stated as following:   - Identification and assessment of social and economic outcomes of the establishment of industrial activities in rural areas of Minudasht as industrial towns.   - Examination of the physical and environmental consequences of the establishment of the industries in the town upon the surrounding rural areas.   - Providing sound suggestions for these activities having in positive effects on the rural areas and to obtain the goals of local and regional development plans in the different spatial dimensions.   Two main questions are stated in the study:   - What outcomes do the establishment of industrial towns and the advent of industrial activities in rural areas have on the lives of the people engaged in the industries?   - What impacts do the industrial activities of these towns have physically and environmentally upon the adjacent rural areas?   The research used Descriptive-Analytic Method and the data of the study was provided from the literature questionnaire asked from rural people engaged in these industries, the interview from the town management and the direct observation. The study area includes the villages in the centeral part of Minudasht located in the east of the Gorgan City. The population of the study is those people resident in these towns industrial activities. The questionnaire data were analyzed by non parametric Willcocson Mc Nemar Tests in SPSS Software.     2- Theoretical Bases   Industrialization means the evolution of the technology in order to enhance the quality of life for the present and the future generations. The rural industrialization was introduced as a part of the comprehensive rural development capable of initiating job opportunities and providing rural needs for rural development. In Iran, the development of industry and manufacturing in the form of industrial town and complexes was taken to a large extent into consideration in recent decades. The goal of such towns was expressed by the Enterprise of Industrial Towns: stimulation of industrial development particularly small industries, increasing the productivity and performance of industrial units, modernization of small factories, bringing a balance between the advanced and underdeveloped areas, utilizing the natural resources in the region, performing the policy of population distribution, employment and the security measures.     3- Discussion   Job creation and income generation are some direct influences of these towns. Now, about 300 people of those engaged in the towns are residing in rural areas and about 161 people live in the central part of Minudasht. Based on the results of the study regarding the economic circumstances of the engaged rural people between the two periods before and after their engagement, there are significant relationships between the amount of income and saving as well as satisfaction and job security. There are such significant differences between the consumption pattern and the quality of lives between these tow periods. From social point of view such differences can be observed in the sanction and life satisfaction and recreation. The main environmental and physical effects of the establishment of the industries are air pollution, the annoying odor from the industrial savages and the magnificent changes in agricultural land use and environmental landscapes.     4- Conclusion   Indeed, industrialization is an essential and determining factor in social and economic development in the developing countries of the world. The suitable selection of an industry is important in its success and also in the growth and development of that area. If the selection of areas for the industries is based on the wise rules and principles, it can act as a strategy to prepare that area for development and progress in different rural spatial dimensions otherwise, it may carry some devastating effects and damage to the area. In the study we indicated that location of the towns had some positive and adverse effects: job creation, increase in income and savings, increase in satisfaction and job security, improvement in quality of life and sanction, rise of the people involvement in the village affairs, and an increase in living in that area. The negative effects include the air pollution, savages odor and changes in land use and landscapes.     5- Suggestions   5-1- Proper selection of the location for the industries and avoiding their development in fertile lands   5-2- Considering the environmental measures   5-3- Creation and expansion of two way ties with the surrounding rural areas and local markets   5-4- Providing the foundations for involvment of the rural people in these activities and giving some privileges to rural employers   5-5- Education for the rural people in industrial skills, and initiating some training and educational centers for rural people   5-6- Expanding ther towns activities to include cultural, social, and sport ones   5-7- Creation of facilities for employees in the towns and surrounding rurals   5-8- Evaluation of the performance of the towns to achieve the goals of sustainable development.   Keywords: Rural industries, industrial towns, rural development, Minudasht       References     Batov. 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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rural industries
  • industrial towns
  • rural development
  • Minudasht