تحلیلی جغرافیایی بر نقش دوچرخه در سیستم حمل و نقل پایدار شهر اصفهان

نویسنده

چکیده

    از گذشته‌های دور اصفهان به عنوان شهر دوچرخه سواران معروف بوده، اما در سالهای اخیر با رشد تردد خودرو، این فرهنگ به حاشیه رانده شده است. وضعیت توپوگرافی مناسب، آب و هوای معتدل و ساختار فرهنگی شهر اصفهان از عوامل گسترش فرهنگ دوچرخه سواری در دهه‌های گذشته بوده است. بررسی‌های آماری نشان می دهد که سهم دوچرخه در سفرهای شهری امروز شهروندان شهر اصفهان، حدود 8.37 درصد از کل سفرهاست. در حالی که این نسبت در دهه 60 حدود 15.4 درصد بوده است. اگر چه در طی 5 سال گذشته، فعالیتهای نسبتاً مطلوبی در شهر اصفهان توسط سازمانهای متولی حمل و نقل شهری در راستای ارتقای جایگاه فرهنگ شهروندی و انسانی تر کردن فضاهای شهری صورت گرفته، اما باید اذعان کرد که این اقدامات کافی نبوده و باید به شکل جامع تری به این موضوع پرداخته شود. چرا که در حال حاضر برای شهر زیبای اصفهان، هر روز طرح شریانی جدیدی طراحی می‌شود بدون آن که در امر طراحی خیابان‌ها به مسیرهای ویژه دوچرخه یا عابر پیاده توجه گردد. در نوشتار حاضر، سعی خواهد شد تا با استفاده از روش توصیفی - تحلیلی و بهره گیری ازابزارهای پرسشنامه، مصاحبه، مشاهده و تحلیل ضرایب همبستگی، دوچرخه و نقش آن درسیستم حمل ونقل پایدار با توجه به جانمایی حدود 15 ایستگاه در شهر اصفهان مورد بررسی و تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گیرد. فرضیه اصلی تحقیق این است که دسترسی بهتر به ایستگاههای دوچرخه، میزان استفاده از آن را به عنوان وسیله‌ای در خدمت حمل و نقل شهری افزایش خواهد داد. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که بین دسترسی بهتر به ایستگاههای دوچرخه و میزان استفاده از آن به عنوان وسیله حمل و نقل، رابطه معناداری وجود دارد ولی تعداد ایستگاههای دوچرخه، طراحی مسیرهای ویژه دوچرخه و سایر تمهیدات اندیشیده شده هنوز کافی نبوده و دوچرخه در شهر اصفهان بیشتر به عنوان یک وسیله تفریحی - ورزشی است و جایگاه مناسبی به عنوان یک وسیله در راستای انجام سفرهای شسهری و کاهش بار ترافیکی به دست نیاورده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Geographic analysis on the role of bicycles in sustainable transport system in Isfahan city

نویسنده [English]

  • R. Mokhtari Malek Abadi
چکیده [English]

    Geographic analysis on the role of bicycles in sustainable transport system in Isfahan city     R. Mokhtari Malek Abadi, Assistant Professor of geography and urban planning, Payam Noor University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran   e-mail: mokhtaryus@yahoo.com   Received: 3 August 2010 / Accepted: 14 March 2011, 19-22 P     Extended abstract   1- Intro duction   Isfahan due to inappropriate location of industrial centers, has excessive air pollution. According to EPA announcement, Isfahan is the second pollution city after Tehran. Isfahan had gardens and green spaces in the east and in the Safavid period, they paid more attention to the importance of green space and its role in the beautiful city and people health than any other period (Mojtahedi, 1379: 4). But today with creation of industrial complexes and lack of proper planning, it not only has its past glory and beauty but also faces severe environmental pollution but.   Unfortunately, in recent years, Isfahan, with all these advantages is developing thoroughfares, streets and highways in accordance with a outomobile oriented function and has paid less attention to pedestrian places, bike paths and green rouds .     Of course, Isfahan urban management efforts in promoting cycling shoud not be avoided because, in recent years, promoting cycling in Isfahan has been considered seriously to the extent of increasing bike stops three times as much as now. This article attempts to describe the situation and position of the bicycle transportation system in Isfahan using statistical methods and questionnaire.     2- Theoretical Bases   2-1 - A bicycle is a light vehicle with two wheels that moves with the power of the leg muscles and has a wide variety. This means has indispensable role in the development of tourism activities, increasing the value of urban land and occupation of less space, increasing employment and local business (Gozar Rah Consulting Engineers, 1384: 29).   2-2- Special Bike Path (Green Roads): The linear open spaces formed along natural or artificial factors and generally any direction in the city and suburbs which is dedicated to pedestrian and bicycle and is environmentally appropriate, are called green road and areused to link togeder , urban hotspots such as shops, public transportation stations, schools, factories, parks and suburban landscapes are linked. Thus, a person can walk or bike in complete security, these spaces and, (Soleimani, 1381: 13)   2-3- Historical usages of bicycles: Bicycle usage in Iran was before World War II. But because of it limite number, it was an expensive device that only some people could use it. After World War II, imports of bicycles increased and the prices also declined. Even in some cities, especial bike paths were built in the streets. So except for a limited period at the beinging, bike was not a means of luxury and leisure. With rapid increase in the number of cars in 1350s, lack of safty for cyclists and paying lessattention to it in planning, its importance was reduced (Gharib, 1383, 20).   Although in many of the world's major cities, especial paths have been considered for bicycling and walking, but in most streets in cities of Iran, expanding the number of cars, increase of the speed of urban traffic, lack of attention to the role of human-oriented spaces and interactive spaces have cause severe reduction of bike using . However, in recent years, with increasing fuel prices and growing environmental pollution, some activities have been done in this area in some cities.     3- Discussion   Suitable topographic conditions of Isfahan, its appropriate climate and cultural structure of the citizens are some factors which resulted in designing special bicycle routes in Isfahan in the past. So that about 6 km of special bicycle routes, and in Chahar Bagh Bala Chahar Bagh Khajoo and Chahar Bagh Abbasi was designed in the earl entry device to Iran.   Table a and ancc of this corresponding graph shows that nowadays the rate of bicycle trips in Isfahan is, only 8.36 percent while this rate has been twice as much in the past. Personal transportation vahids highest share of 31.33 percent of urban trips in Isfahan today allocated to data.     4- Conclusion   According to the analysis done, the following results can be extracted:   - Development of highways and wide streets has caused disorganization of the skeletal system and the social life of urban communities while giving quality to urban spaces has been less considered.   - Urban highways has cased increase in speed and this speed leads to redaction of and human vision, background vagueness, weakening of space perception and reduction of perception of the urban landscape details (Hosseini and Razaghi Asl, 1387, 5)   - Highways and thoroughfares increase speed and finally reduce the safety factor of pedestrians and for cyclists.   - Rate of urban trips by bicycle in the city of Isfahan is very limited.   - The bike in the city of Isfahan is not considered as a means of public transportation as much as is looked at as a means of entertainment and sport.   - Lack of espetiol and suitable parking for bikes in Isfahan   - Lack of necessary cultural infrastructure for to using bicycles   - Unsafe streets and thoroughfares of the city for using bocycles.   - Insufficient number of available stations for bicycles in sufficient services:   - Lack of participation of other organizations in the field of urban culture and advertising for making use of bicycles in Isfahan   - In possibility of using bikes for women and people under 18 years in Esfahan     5- Suggestions   5-1- Appropriate physical structures of cities and streets.   The image. Shows poor design of urban streets for bicycles. Obviously, most urban areas are not appropriate for bicycles.   5-2- Making electrical and physical connection between the bicycles stations in Isfahan   5-3- Designing suitable bicycle parking in Isfahan   5-4- Increasing the number of bike stations in the city spread all over the city coverage in the entire city to create   5-5- Designing an appropriate kind of bike for women and people under 18   5-6- serious participation in municipal organizations encourage employees to use bicycles in Isfahan   5-7- Developing green roads and especial paths for pedestrians and bikes in cities   5-8- Making use of correct patterns of the leading countries in the use of bicycles.   Keywords: Bicycle, Special path for bike and pedestrian (Green Road), sustainable urban transportation, Isfahan     References     Aplyard, D. (1382). streets, cities can cause death, they (guidelines for the design of streets in the cities of the Third World) a new translation Tavalaee, Abadi Journal, No. 39.   Azan, M. (1381). Sustainable Urban Development, Case Study: Isfahan Rsalh period Ph. D. Geography and Urban Planning,: Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Department of Geography, University of Isfahan.   Transportation Statistics Organization of Isfahan Municipality traffic, in 1387.   Detailed Statistics Publications Project in Isfahan, 1387   Sabtyrsad, A. (1387). extensive and in Bymhar you in my city, traffic management, Hamshahri, Tehran.   Hatami, R., Eshraghi, H. (1388). and its role in bicycle transportation and sustainable development of urban transport, sample, city Bonab Journal of Geographical Studies, No. 70.   Hassanzadeh, GH. (1387). evaluated physical capacity and cultural backgrounds - social use of bikes in the city as a means of transportation.   Hosseini, and Razaghi Sydbaqr principle, Sina. (1387). and time moves on the urban landscape, images and design concepts, International Journal of Engineering Science, University of Science and Technology   Striker Ali Abadi and Rakhshani ancestry, HR. (1388). Statistical analysis - spatial development of urban green space viewers, Case Study: the urban areas of Isfahan, journal Environmental Studies, thirty five years, number 49, Tehran.   Population and Housing Census. (1385). Statistical Center of Iran. .   Soleimani, Mohsen, and Rasul (1381), Green Road, multipurpose urban element, Municipal Journal, No. 36, Tehran.   Indicators of growth and development facilities and transport infrastructure and traffic Isfahan metropolis, deputy transport and traffic authority, Isfahan, 1389.   Shahabian, snoopy. (1383). the risk of riding a bicycle at the intersection, the Municipal Journal, Year V, No. 58, Tehran   Zero leader Rahmati et al. (1389). reducing traffic volume of traffic strategy by creating bicycle paths, case study, the historic fabric of the city of Shiraz, Journal of geographical space   Almost, Fereydoun (1383), Feasibility and bicycle trails in old Tehran, Arts Magazine, No. 19, autumn.   Qsry, M. A., Khosravi, M. (1382). culture of Iran in the mirror of architecture and urbanism.   Priest, A. (1379). Jahan square and its surrounding green space in the Safavid era, humanities journal Sistan and Baluchestan University, number 10, Zahedan.   Mahmoudi, M. M. (1381). the impact of highways within the city changed the urban landscape of Tehran, Environmental Quarterly, No. 12,   Mokhtari Malek Abad, R. (1389). TV upset today in Isfahan, called Mnzrgahy Highway, Urban Broadcasting Conference, Isfahan.   Interview-Mr Kulayni. (1389). Education Department responsible for shipping traffic Isfahan Municipality.   Field Study author, November 1389.   Moini, M. M. (1375). increased ability to walk circuit, a step toward a more human city, fine arts magazine, No. 27.   Gzrrah Consulting Engineers. (1384). bicycle facilities, publishing practices, transportation and traffic Organization of Tehran Municipality.   Sheikholislami, A. (1995). Planning and Design for Cycling as a Viable Urban Transportation Mode, A thesis for of master of science in Roads and Transportation Engineering, Supervisor H. Behbahani, Iran, Tehran, LUST, School of Civil Engineering.   Aleebrahim, P. (2003). Presenting a Comprehensive Process for Development of Cycling in Cities, thesis for of Master of Science in Urban Planning, Supervisor Abdolreza Sheikholislami, LUST, Faculty of Architecture, Iran, Tehran.   www.bicycle.sfgov.org   www.niches-transport.org     

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bicycle
  • Special path for bike and pedestrian (Green Road)
  • sustainable urban transportation
  • Isfahan