مکان‌یابی بهینه پایگاه‌های پشتیبانی مدیریت بحران با استفاده از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (مطالعه موردی منطقه 6 شهرداری تهران)

نویسندگان

چکیده

  برنامه‌ریزی پیش از وقوع بحران از مسائل مهمی است که امروزه پیش روی مدیران شهری به ویژه در حوزه مدیریت بحران قرار دارد. با توجه به اینکه ایران از کشورهای بلاخیز دنیا به شمار می رود، لازم است مدیریت شهری قدرت و توانایی بالایی در مواجهه با حوادث ناگوار طبیعی داشته باشد و به منظور کاهش اثرات سوء بحران‌های شهری برای ارتقاء و گسترش توانایی‌های خود به طور مستمر تلاش نماید. در سال‌های اخیر احداث پایگاه‌های پشتیبانی مدیریت بحران در دستور کار سازمان پیشگیری و مدیریت بحران شهر تهران قرار گرفته است. یکی از موارد قابل توجه قبل از احداث این پایگاه‌ها مطالعه، بررسی و انتخاب مکان جغرافیایی مناسب برای استقرار این نوع کاربری است. مکانی که در شرایط بحرانی محلی ایمن برای پایگاه باشد و همچنین در جهت کارایی هرچه بیشتر پایگاه موثر و مفید واقع شود. در این پژوهش مکان یابی پایگاه‌های پشتیبانی مدیریت بحران در منطقه 6 شهرداری تهران مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است. در مرحله نخست به شناسایی و بررسی عوامل موثر بر مکان گزینی پایگاه‌ها، پرداخته شد. پس از گرد آوری وآماده سازی لایه‌ها، نقشه‌های فاکتور فازی تهیه گردید و سپس وزن دهی به پارامترها با استفاده ازفرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی در نرم افزار Super Decision ، انجام گرفت. در مرحله بعدی لایه‌های اطلاعاتی بر مبنای مدل‌های همپوشانی شاخص و فازی با یکدیگر تلفیق و در نهایت از ترکیب نتایج حاصل از این مرحله با اعمال چهار عملیات جمع، ضرب، اشتراک فازی و اجتماع فازی گزینه‌هایی به عنوان مکان مطلوب، معرفی شدند که از بین آنها، بخش شمال شرقی تقاطع بزرگراه کردستان و شهید گمنام به عنوان گزینه برتر پیشنهاد شد. با توجه به قابلیت سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی در حل مسائل پیچیده شهری و سهولت در تحلیل وآنالیزهای مکانی، از توانایی‌های این سیستم جهت آماده سازی، تلفیق و تحلیل لایه‌ها بهره گرفته شده است.   

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Location Analysis Regarding Disaster Management Bases via GIS Case study: Tehran Municipality (No.6)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Shoja Araghi
  • S. Tavallaei
  • P. Ziaeian
چکیده [English]

  Location Analysis Regarding Disaster Management Bases via GIS Case study: Tehran Municipality (No.6)     M. Shoja Araghi ( * )   M.A of Geography and Urban Planning, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran, Iran   e-mail: Mahnaz_sh_a@yahoo.com     S. Tavallaei   Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran, Iran     P. Ziaeian   Associate Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran, Iran   Received: 17 June 2010 / Accepted: 14 May 2011, 11-15 P     Extended abstract   1- Intro duction   Nowhere in the world is free from the risk. However, with increasing population and their relevant needs, the destruction and damaging power and magnitude of both natural disasters have been intensified. In other words, the Earth is more vulnerable than it used to be.   In this context, disaster management headquarters in Tehran raised and adopted the original plan for disaster management in Tehran. The main goals of Construction of this site is to provide tactical and operational platform for achieving the appropriate preventive measures, preparedness and coping with various crises, particularly the great natural crises such as earthquakes, accelerate network development and system evaluation reticulum incident, and conduct operations control center of city of Tehran.     In normal conditions, user education and sport (CS women) also for these categories is considered.   Considering that the support bases, particularly in crisis situations play a very important role in the organization and crisis management, so it is necessary that through a comprehensive study the exact place for this type of construction is selected in order to improve efficiency and exploiting it to be effective. So, in this research, analysis and identification of the factors influencing location choice switching sites and appropriate manner based on the findings and scientific instruments is taken in to account so that, the most suitable places to establish these bases in found. For this purpose geographic information system is used as a powerful tool in managing and analyzing spatial data, and six Regional Municipality of Tehran are selected as the study area.     2- Theoretical Bases   In order to weight to the effective criteria in setting the site location AHP is used and for integrating layers of index were used overlay and fuzzy models. Explanation about each concept is presented in the following part.     - AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process)   AHP was introduced by Thomas L. clock in 1980. This system is one of the most comprehensive of systems designed for decision making with multiple criteria.   This technique allows formulating the problem in a hierarchical pattern and makes it possible to consider various quantitative and qualitative criteria. This process involves various options in decision making and has the possibility of doing sensitivity analysis on the criteria and sub criteria. Furthermore, it is based on paired comparison and thus facilitate and calculations. It also shoes the compatibility and incompatibility of the decision which is a superior advantage of this technique in mult criteria decision making.     - Index Overlay Model   The index overlay model is a cmmon model to combine layers, which gives weight to the factors influencing site selection, based on their importance and role and according to expert opinions. This weight is numerical and determined in specific period. The numerical weight in the specified period shall be determined.         In this connection is the weighed score for the issue or complication (polygon, pixel) is weight of ith input map and S ij is weight of jth class from ith map.     - Fuzzy logic model (Fuzzy logic)   Fuzzy logic is a multi- valued logic, i.e. its parameters and variables, in addition to assigning the numbers 0 or 1, can assign all values can be between these two numbers. Belonging of Each member of the reference set to a specific subset, is not definitive, i.e. it cannot be said decisively that the desired member belongs to this is set or not. This is done by attributing a namber between 0 and 1 to this member.   Operators of fuzzy logic model are as follow:     Fuzzy OR:       Fuzzy AND:       Fuzzy Algebraic Product:     Fuzzy Algebraic Sum:     Fuzzy Gamma:       In which is the selected parameter in the range of (0 and 1). When γ = 1 the combination woud be the fuzzy algebraic sum and when γ = 0 the combination is equal to fuzzy algebraic product.     3- Discussion   After the initial studies to determine the optimal location for establishing bases for disaster management support using geographic information systems (GIS), the following steps were takan:   At first the study area was determined. Then the parameters of the desired user location were analyzed, and were classified in two levels of factor and sub factor. These factors include some geomorphic specifications, population density, locational properties, physical characteristics, accessibility and contingency regarding both compatible and incompatible urban land uses. Each factor has some sub factors, e.g. geological profile criteria include factors of ground water level, slope and ground fault.   More layers were prepared. It was necessary to, georeference the layers and create topology for layers and define coordinate system and the same scale for each layer. Layers were prepared for subsequent analysis. Then factor map were prepared for layers. Factor maps include two processing stages and give weight to each layer. Before that it is required to define criteria and standards for each layer according to their field work. In the process stage, all layers were changed from vector to raster using Spatial Analyst tools. Preparing factor map was done using fuzzy method with regarding criteria defined for each layer and linear membership functions was defined based on the positive or negative effect of each parameter in the process of site selection. Membership functions on layers some software was written using Raster Calculator tool in Arc GIS and finally some maps were obtained to each of the units in its place, a value between 0 to1 was allocated.   The layers in each class (factor) were to be combined with each other so it was necessary that the effective factors be determind. Selecting the correct and conscious weight will help to determine the optimum site. In this study for suitable weighing, AHP was used. Experts presented scores based on 9 degree Saati table at the matrix tables, then the scores were entered in the software Super Decision and after doing necessary calculations, the final weight for each of the criteria and factors were extracted. Next, integrating layers was done using software ArcGIS9.2.   This process was done at two levels (factor & sub factor levels) and via three methods. In combining layers at both levels, AHP technique was applied as well   - Based on first method , index overly was applied in combining two levels   - In second procedure, index overly was applied with regard to combination of sub factor. However, fuzzy gamma was used for combination of factor . Based on the opinion of experts gamma value of 0.85 was chosen   - According to third method, fuzzy gamma was used in order to combine both factor and sub factor:   - Geomorphic specifications   - Accessibility   -Compatible urban land uses   -Incompatible urban land uses     Later on, raster maps derived from this method, factor maps, were integrated with each other using the fuzzy gamma. Gamma optimal level for this stage has been set. Result of this operation was three raster maps, the value of each pixel represents on the desirability or undesirability of establishing user location.     4- Conclusion   To find the optimal location from the three outputs obtained, the maps were combined together using four operations of, multiplication, sum , Fuzzy Or operator and Fuzzy And operator.   In each of the four output similar limits was found as an appropriate location. The results of this study propose the three options for the establishment of basis is.   All of these maps suggest that north eastern part of Kordestan, Shaheed Gomnam intersection possess the highest pixels value in terms of areal extent and optimum ship and therefore is recommended as optimum location for construction of emergency evacuation base.     5- Suggestions   Urban planners and decision makers can acheive their goals with greater accuracy and speed and make decisions and solve problems for urban models using logic and modern efficient devices and systems, and especially with the advantage of geographic information systems.   Proposed method in this research, gives this opportunity to prevention and disaster management organization to identify and select the safe and desired location and safe construction of bases for disaster management support with greater accuracy and ease in spite of the frequency of parameter and different values.   Key words: Location Analysis, Disaster Management Bases, Geographic Information System, Analytical Hierarchical Process, Index overlay, Fuzzy logic     References   Al sheikh, A. and Hosseinian, Sh. (2006) Geomatic Conference, Optimal location of urban land use via GIS (case study: green space Yasuj), Tehran.   Amiri, F. (2007), Site Selection of high voltage substation using Geographic information system, Ebadi Hamid, M.A Thesis, Khaje nasir toosi university of technology, photogrammetry department, Tehran.   B.Kar, M.E Hodgson. (2008),”A GIS-Based Model to Determine Site Suitability of Emergency Evacuation Shelters”, Transactions in GIS.   Bayatani, A. (2007-2008), Mapping of potential mineral deposits of copper Prfyry using remote sensing and GIS case study southwest meshkin City, Ziaeenan Parveez, M.A Thesis, Shaheed beheshti university, remote sensing department.   Ghodsi poor, H. (2000), Topics in multiple criteria decision making: Analytical Hierarchy Process, Amirkabir university press, Tehran.   Islami, A. (2006), site selection regarding Emergency Evacuation Bases of   Kaine Wolfgang. (2002), Fuzzy logic and GIS, Department of Geography and Regional Research University of Vienna, Austria.   Mehdipoor, Fatemeh and Mesgari, Mohammad s. (2007), Geomatic Conference, Model for site selection based on multiple criteria decision making methods in GIS, Tehran, www.civilica.com   Municipality subdivision number 1, Tehran, www.civilica.com .   Public relation of Tehran disaster mitigation and management organization. (2006), Report of Disaster Management Bases, Hamgaman magazine, no9, Tehran.   Saeednia, A. (2008), Ketabe sabz (land use), Municipality Organization Country, Tehran.   Samadzadegan. (2004), Optimum Site Selection for contemporary Evacuation Shelters based on application of spatial information systems (GIS) Intelligent, Tehran, www.civilica.com.   Shoja Araghi, Mahnaz. (2008), Locational Analysis Regarding Multi-Purpose Disaster Management Bases via GIS Case study: Tehran Municipality (The 6th Division), Tavallaei Simin, M.A Thesis, Tarbiat Moallem University, Geographic department.   Shoja Araghi, M. (2004), Instruction set operation and maintenance management support disaster management bases in Tehran, Municipality Organization Country, Tehran.   Shoja Araghi, M. (2004), Report site location particular area of Disaster Management Bases 20th Division, Municipality Organization Country, Tehran.   www.civilica.com/   www.tehran .ir/   www.undp.org.ir /   Zebar dast, E. (2005), Site Survey Analysis with Respect to Emergency Evacuation Centers using GIS and AHP techniques, Art periodical issue number 21 pp5-16.Tehran.   

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Location analysis
  • Disaster Management Bases
  • Geographic Information System
  • Analytical Hierarchical Process
  • Index overlay
  • Fuzzy Logic