تبیین جامعه شناختی کارکرد پارک‌های شهری(مطالعه موردی پارک‌های شهر اصفهان)

نویسندگان

چکیده

  پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناخت و تبیین جامعه شناسی کارکرد پارک‌ها در شهر اصفهان اجرا گردید. به این منظور پس از بررسی اجمالی تاریخچه موضوع و نظریه‌های مختلف موجود در این زمینه، با استفاده از روش پیمایش و تدوین پرسشنامه‌ای مشتمل بر بیش از30 سؤال در نمونه ای به حجم 150نفر از شهروندان که در 10 مورد از پارک‌های شهر اصفهان حضور داشته‌اند، اقدام به جمع‌آوری اطلاعات گردید. پس از استخراج و پردازش داده‌های جمع آوری شده و تهیه شاخص‌های آماری مناسب برای متغیرهای مستقل و وابسته تحقیق، از روش‌های آماری آزمون T ، آزمون تحلیل واریانس و برای تشخیص عامل‌های سازه کارکرد پارک‌ها از تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی و برای برازش الگو از مدل معادله ساختاری ( SEM )استفاده شد. نتایج به دست آمده حاکی از آن است که بین «نوع پارک و کارکرد پارک رابطه وجود دارد. بین «تاهل» و کارکرد پارک‌ها(به عنوان متغیر وابسته) رابطه معنی داری به دست آمد. اما همین امر بر اساس «جنس» تفاوتی پیدا نکرد و میزان کارکرد بر اساس شغل متفاوت بود ولی براساس تحصیلات تفاوتی نداشت. از آنجایی که مدل نظری تحقیق مشتمل بر تاثیر «امکانات پارک‌ها»، «میزان امنیت»، «انسجام اجتماعی» برکارکرد پارک‌ها به عنوان سازه پنهان بود بنابراین، بر اساس یافته‌های تحقیق، معیارها و شاخص‌های برازندگی یعنی مقدار کای ‌اسکویر برابر با Chi-Square=8.95 با درجه آزادی df=8 و سطح معنی داری برابر با P-value=0.346 به دست آمده که معنی‌دار نشده است و مقدار «ریشه‌ میانگین توان دوم خطای برآورد» برابر با RMSEA=0.02 به دست آمد علاوه بر آن شاخص توکر لویس( TLI ) و شاخص نیکویی برازش هنجار نشده( NNFI ) برابر با 98/0 و شاخص برازش مقایسه‌ای ( CFi ) برابر با 99/0 به دست آمد که حاکی از برازش مطلوب مدل است و نشان می‌دهد که کلیه این عوامل بر کارکرد پارک‌ها در یک مدل ساختاری تاثیر گذار هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Sociological Explanation of Parks Function (Case Study of Isfahan City)

نویسندگان [English]

  • R. Rabani
  • J. Nazari
  • M. Mokhtari
چکیده [English]

  Sociological Explanation of Parks Function (Case Study of Isfahan City)   R. Rabani   Professor of Urban Sociology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran     J. Nazari ( * )   PhD student of Sociology, Islamic Azad University – Dehaghan Branch, Dehaghan, Iran   e-mail: jnazari2@gmail.com     M. Mokhtari   PhD student of Sociology, Islamic Azad University – Dehaghan Branch, Dehaghan, Iran     Received: 3 December 2010 / Accepted: 13 July 2011, 29-31 P     Extended Abstracts   1- Introduction   Today the protected areas including national parks are recognized as among the most beneficial forms of multi-aspect and stable productivity. Green spaces are appropriate places for the citizens to spend their leisure time. The main objective in designing of green space is to attain its social and mental effects in making human closer to the nature as far as possible. Nowadays, sociologists, psychologists and physicians believe that in addition to important implications for public and environmental health, green space plays positive role in the health and well-being of community as well. The fundamental objective of the present research is to develope an experimental model which can determine the parks function and provide a scientific base to identify the factors that affect the urban parks function. The functional objectives are also included in the identification and definition of the constituents of the parks function, the comparison of the parks efficiency between males and females and, also, paving the way for the planners and creating opportunities for scientific researches in the field of parks function. This study seeks to explore the relationships between the independent variables such as type of park, and the background variables as gender, education and marital status and, finally, it will be involved in the relationships of "parks facilities", "security" and "social solidarity" with parks function in an analytical model. Data were collected via interview with citizens through the survey method using the researcher-made questionnaire technique.     2- Theoretical Bases   According to Parsons, a function is “a complex of activities directed towards meeting a need or needs of the system”, so it can be said that the parks are considered as need of city and are used by the city centers to meet their particular needs such as moral mental, social and cultural ones.   Viewing park not solely as a physical phenomenon rather as a living phenomenon which gives life to a community, it appears that Morton's theory would clearly explain its function park, on the one hand, is an integral part of a city and essentially has functions for it and, on the other hand, the obvious function of a park is to provide an appropriate place to enjoy leisure time with a sense of peace and recreation. And in such a space the individuals interact with each other and these interactions and communication occur more frequently in parks. But, park has latent functions as well, i.e. it can be an atmosphere of crimes and social pathology which are not taken into account as the clear and obvious objective in creating a park.     3- Discussion   On the basis of theories concerning function, three factors of facilities, security, and solidarity socio-cultural indicator, moral and mental indicator, educational indicator as the determinant of the parks efficiency were studied and examined as dependent variable in the model of structural equation and the background variables including gender, type of park, occupation, education and marital status as independent variables associated with the parks function and the results showed that among the background variables the marital status, type of park and occupation had significant relationship with parks efficiency. The married persons have found the parks more efficient as compared to the single ones and this indicates that the married persons make use of such space in normal and effective way. Regarding the parks efficiency, the mean value obtained for the employed persons was higher than that for the unemployed ones indicating that the employed persons are in more need to park as a result of their occupation and the level of pressures have to be tolerated.     4- Conclusion   The results show that a high degree of parks efficiency is determined by the existing facilities and the efficiency of the latter. Security as a social variable is of almost the similar potential and, thereby, insecurity in parks as well as creating such sense in visitors will lead to the parks efficiency decrease. The above results confirm the theories about the mental and social factors. But, among the indicators determining the latent variable of parks efficiency, the social and cultural factor is of higher importance than others and this proves the importance of the cultural and social dimensions of a society in determining the level of parks efficiency.     5- Suggestions   By considering the results obtained from the survey, the parks designers and officials are, on the one hand, to pay attention to the level of efficiency as well as the factors affecting the parks efficiency because when such factors are neglected, the parks will have no effective efficiency, and, on the other hand, to make people susceptible and to create common sense about maintenance and special care since they are the social human beings who finally make use of these urban spaces.   Key words: Function, social solidarity, social security, park and Isfahan.         References   Amin Zadeh, B. and others. (2001), Valgvhay design behavior, Journal of Environmental Studies, Tehran University Press.   Azkya, M. (2001), Sociology of Development, Tehran: Kalameh Publishing.   Eslah Arbany, E. (1995), Gilan book, scholars of Iran, Tehran.   Bahraini, Hussein. (1999), Analysis of urban spaces, Tehran University Press.   Tanhai, Aboalhassan. (1993), Introduction to the Theory of Sociology, Kheradmand publication.   Carr, S.et al. (1992), public Space, New York: Cambridge university press.   Chalabi, M. (2006), Analysis of social action in space, printing, Tehran, Ney publishing. Ghaffari, G. et al. (2005), Sociology of Social Change, Tehran: Agah Publications Rafi Poor, Faramarz. (2007), Specific research techniques in social sciences, Tehran: Kharazmi.   Fyfe, R.Nicholose. (1998), the image of the street, London: E and FNspon.   Hooman, Heidar A. (2005), with the application of structural equation modeling software Lyzrl, Tehran, SAMT. Magazines   Kalantari, Kh. (2003), Processing and Data Analysis in Social and Economic Research, Tehran: Sharif.   Larence, Calvin J. (1998), the theory of pure and applied sociology, Tehran: Publication of Samt   Majnounyan, Henrique. (1995). Discussions about parks and green spaces, Tehran, Department of Urban Services, urban parks and green space.   Mortzayy, R. (1988). Street benches and chairs, municipalities, Year II, No. 17.   Newman, o. (1972), Defensible space, people and design in the violet city, London Architectural press.   Newton, N.T. (1971), Design on the land: development of landscape architecture, Belknap press of Harvard university.cambridge, Massachuset.   Northway m. (2001), Group dynamics and group assessment, translation Gholamabas Tavassoli, Tehran: Tehran University Press.   Organization of provincial parks. (1996),   Ritzer, George. (1995), Contemporary Sociological Theory, Tehran: Scientific Publishing Saroukhany, B.. (1996). Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, Tehran, Kayhan Institute.   Saeed Nia, Ahmed. (2000), Municipal Green Book, Volume IX, urban green space, publishing the country's municipalities.   Shirzad, Mohammad Reza. (2008), City council parks and green paper organization, the City Park site.   Winawer, B.P and Aran D. (1965), childs play:A creative approach to play scape for todays children.harper and row publication,inc.newyork.     

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Function
  • social solidarity
  • Social Security
  • park and Isfahan