امکان سنجی ارتقاء کیفیت محیط از طریق پیاده راه سازی محورهای شهری مورد: محور خیابان ارم بخش مرکزی شهر قم

نویسندگان

چکیده

  پیاده راه ­ ها یا مسیرهای پیاده برای تبدیل فضاهای سکونتگاهی به مکان­های امن و لذت بخش برای پیاده­روی اختصاص داده شده­اند. امروزه، در سیاست­های برنامه­ریزی شهری به دنبال تقویت محیط­های پیاده و از بین بردن موانعی هستیم که توانایی ما را برای پیاده­روی آسان و ایمن، محدود می­کند . مطالعه حاضر به منظور بررسی و سنجش تمایل به حضور گروه­های مصرف کننده و ایجاد شرایطی به منظور ارتقاء کمی و کیفی محیط شهری، افزایش ارتباطات و تعاملات اجتماعی افراد با یکدیگر در محیطی امن و سالم، رفع آلودگی­های زیست محیطی و مهمتر از همه احترام به هویت عابر پیاده به عنوان جزئی مهم از سیستم حمل و نقل شهری در قالب بستر کالبدی مناسب، انجام شده است. فضای پیاده پیشنهاد ایجاد مسیرهای خاص حرکت پیاده و فضاهای مکث در جهت بهبود کیفیت فضاهای شهری را مطرح می­کند . این مقاله به سنجش کیفیت محیط، به بررسی امکان ایجاد پیاده راه، از سه بعد کالبدی، کارکردی و ادراک محیطی پرداخته است. کیفیت محیط با ایجاد مدل تجربی سنجش کیفیت (درخت ارزش) توسط روش کل به جزء و بررسی 13 معیار ارائه شده در 4 سطح ارزیابی شد. تحلیل­های آماری (رگرسیون چند متغیره، تحلیل مسیر،آزمون همبستگی پیرسون و tb کندال و...) نشان می‌دهد که بین متغیر وابسته (کیفیت محیط) با متغیرهای مستقل(معیارها) با اطمینان ٩٩ ٪ رابطه معنی داری وجود دارد، به عبارت دیگر، بین متغیرهای مستقل تحقیق با متغیرافزایش کیفیت محیط پیرامون حرم حضرت معصومه(س) به واسطه پیاده محور کردن خیابان ارم، رابطه مثبت و معناداری وجود دارد؛ بنابراین، با توجه به یافته­های تحقیق امکان ایجاد پیاده راه در این محیط به منظور ارتقاء کیفیت محیط در بخش مرکزی شهر قم وجود دارد.   

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Feasibility Study of Quality Improvement by Pedestrainization of Urban Roads Case Study: Aram Street of Ghom CBD

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Rafieian
  • E. Sedighi
  • M. Pourmohammadi
چکیده [English]

  Feasibility Study of Quality Improvement by Pedestrainization of Urban Roads Case Study: Aram Street of Ghom CBD       Received: 8 February 2011 / Accepted: 13 September 2011, 9-14 P   M. Rafieian ( * )   Associate Professor of Urban Planning, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran   e-mail: Rafiei_m@modares.ac.ir     E. Sedighi   Assistant professor of urban transportation, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran     M. Pourmohammadi   M.A. of Urban Planning, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran           Extended abstract   1- Intro duction   Urbanization growth and parallel to it the vehicles increase in urban areas has caused different problems. Among them we can refer to decrease of human scale on residential environments, lack of urban places, face to face contact, and population development in the urban centers increase of accidents rate in passages networks, disappearing safety and security of passer- by, decrease of passer – by value, and generally decreasing environment quality. To consider quality promotion of urban environments and following that to value passer - by, as the main formative elements of city and their satisfaction of urban environments are the principal drives of the research.     The research area is the area between Se rahe bazar to Shohada Square (Eram Avenue) and its Suburbs. The research purpose is to measure the rate of social group’s tendency towards making pavement - oriented Main Street connected to Majesty holly shrine in Qom. The main question of the research is whether the increase of functional variety at different times of day and night will develop making pavement? And whether pedestrian roads will increase the social security for environment users?     2- Theoretical Bases   The environment quality is a multiple dimension concept that is related to the concepts such as life quality, place quality, perception and citizenship satisfaction and life capability so that they are often regarded as similar concepts. While there is considerable variety on approaches inclined to discussion about urban environments quality, the concept of environment quality is considered in the form of theoretical approach according to two bases of the approaches inclined to frame dimensions of environment and the approaches with majority social – local content. Also from other perspective in three bases we can consider the approach of policymakers, perceptual – psychological view and empirical research as the main grounds of indicating urban environments quality. Concerning the previous studies, the approach of environment quality measurement through environment users that is the same approach of measurement of residential satisfaction rate (is the subset of local – social approach) was selected for measurement of urban environment quality in this research. Thus in order to promote urban environment quality such as street and increase people satisfaction from the environment we tried to consider the solution of making pavement in the environment as the research hypothesis and establish statistical relation, between data. In this research pedestrian roads or pedestrian streets, are single streets that car traffic is eliminated from them. In other words in these streets non – motor traffic and passer – by moving have priority. Of course the particular cars (fire engine and emergency and police car) can use in emergency and service vehicles and load corridor are allowed to pass through them.     3- Discussion   In order to study the possibility of making pavement, it was considered from three functional, physical and environmental perception aspects. The environment quality was evaluated by designing empirical model of quality assessment (value tree), using deductive method, studying 13 given criterions (including availability, environment, urban facilities, lighting , pavements, cultural- social factors, economic activities, entertainment functions, livability, identity, human scale, belonging sense , legibility) whit an assess meal in 4 levels.   By using available and documentary information as statistical and field study and from the value tree a questionnaire was provided and it was completed by both sex groups (male and female) 386 people with age range between 15-16 and different social classes and groups (resident and passer- by) during 6 successive days and different times of day (on Cochran -sampling formula).   The samples were selected as randomly systematic around Majesty Masoumeh's holly shrine and questioned and data were analyzed through spss software.   The correlation rate was determined between variables. In the next stage all selected sub- branches including 12 parameters were studied separately and their correlation rate was determined.   The rate of direct and indirect effect and also priority of each independent variable on the rate of people satisfaction with environment was determined by using path analysis. Physical characteristics with 0.682 were standed in the first priority.   Then the environmental perception with 0.605 and the functional characteristics with 0.483 were standed in the second and third priority. The considerable point is however in regression analysis of variable the functional figures had the most direct effect on the variable of environment quality but in the path analysis with a view to the indirect effect of variables, the physical characteristics were standed on the first priority with 0.682. Also the finding result of research indicates user’s dissatisfaction of environment quality around Majesty Masoumeh's holly shrine.   While the theoretical average of urban environment quality rate was equivalent to 2. the average of environment quality around Majesty Masoumeh's holly shrine was equivalent to 1.54 from environment user’s view that is about 0.46 less than the theoretical average of 2.     4- Conclusion   The statistical analyses (multiple variable regression, path analysis, person correlation test and tb Kendal, etc.) show that there is a meaning relation between dependent variable (environment quality) and independent variable (standards) with confidence %99.   In other words, there is a positive and meaningful relation between dependent variables of the research and variables of environment quality increase around Majesty Masoumeh's holly shrine through making the Eram street pavement-centered. Therefore the research hypotheses were confirmed by examining the studied samples. It means that the functional variety increase at different times of day land night encourages citizens to walk along urban places and allows making pavement in such place with many and various functions. Also promotion of environment quality in the urban places on pavement increases social security for citizens. Therefore findings show there is the possibility of establishing pavement in such environment in order to promote the environment quality in the central part of Qom. Also in order to promote the environment quality on pavement, investment in security, availability, passages, economic functions items, may lead to improvement.     5- Suggestions   From the main objective of the research, by using evaluation of environment users views around holly shrine and relying on information gaind through cognition stage the following suggestions can increase success of performance process of the project:   - Providing the proper public transit for citizens availability to this limit during the day and night   - Making the necessary facilities along Eram Street for meeting resting, walking, shopping …   - Valuating the urban places (Astaneh Square and its adjacent Space, Eram Street) as a social place and also as qualified and identity element   - Designing a positive perspective at night   - Transferring incompatible activities and land uses around holly Shrine to outside of it.       Refrences   Amergo, M. & Aragones, J.I. 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(1994),“National Bicycling And Walking Study, Traffic Calming,Auto-restricted Zones and Other Traffic Management Techniques-Their Effects on bicycling and Pedestrians” Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of transportation   Papadimitriou, Eleonora, et.al. (2009),“A critical assessment of pedestrian behaviour models”, Transportation Research Part F, No.12 ,pp.242–255   Porta, Sergio, et.al. (2008), “Multiple centrality assessment in Parma: a network analysis of paths and open spaces”, urban design International, No.13, pp. 41–50   Porteous, J.D. (1971),”Design with People-the Quality of the Urban Environment”. Environmental and Behavior. No. 3, pp.155–178   Pourmohammadi, M. (2010),”feasibility study of pedestrian around hazrate-e masoumeh shrine with the emphasis on social security improvement”, Rafieian, Mojtaba, thesis master of art in urban and regional planning,faculty of art and architecture,tarbiyat modares university.   Rafieian, M, moludi, J. 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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Environment Quality
  • pedestrian – oriented
  • hierarchical multiple variable regression
  • Qom