زنان در بازار کار شهری؛ مطالعه تطبیقی شهرهای تهران و مونترال

نویسندگان

چکیده

  یکی از معضلات مهم شهرها و روستاهای ایران، شمار روزافزون زنان بیکار، به ویژه زنان تحصیل­کرده­ی در جستجوی کار و متعاقب آن، کاهش سطح تولید و بهره­وری، افت درآمد سرانه و رفاه است. این مطالعه­ی تطبیقی، بر پایه آمار جمعیتی سال 1385 (2006) و مشاهدات و مصاحبه­های انجام شده در سال­های 2010-2011 شکل گرفته است. مقاله با هدف ترسیم دورنمایی از جنبه­های مثبت و فرصت­ها برای کارآفرینی و کاهش بیکاری زنان شهر تهران، شاخص­های اشتغال و بیکاری، تفاوت­های موجود در سطح و نوع اشتغال زنان، علل و مکانیزم­های آنها و به ویژه نظام آموزشی را بررسی و تحلیل کرده است. این پژوهش، بر پایه سوال اصلی: علل تفاوت ساختاری در سیستم آموزشی دو شهر تهران و مونترال، و این که؛ تاثیر پذیری اشتغال زنان عمدتا از چه عواملی است؟ و فرضیه منطبق با آن که: نظام آموزشی و فرهنگ کار، علل مهم تفاوت ساختاری در اشتغال زنان مونترال و تهران است، شکل گرفته است. به این ترتیب، فرضیه، بر تفاوت عمیق میان دو سیستم آموزشی کار محور و تخصص گرا در مقابل مدرک­گرا و در نگرش و تلقی از کار و اشتغال، تاکید دارد. نتیجه اصلی این پژوهش: تایید فرضیه، یعنی وجود ساختار آموزشی حرفه و کار محور شهر مونترال سبب اشتغال بالای جمعیت، ب ه ویژه زنان در مقایسه با شهر تهران شده است. از دیگر نتایج مهم این مطالعه برای مدیریت شهری به ویژه در تهران: ضرورت ایجاد و گسترش نظام آموزشی مبتنی بر کسب مهارت، حرفه و سواد کاربردی برای همه افراد؛ نظام حقوقی و قانونی روشن؛ شفاف و قطعی در اجرای ضوابط و قوانین مصوب در زمینه اشتغال همه افراد؛ فضای فرهنگی حفظ کرامت و اعتبار انسانی صرف نظر از جنس، و تسهیل کننده اشتغال برای همه انسان­ها و سیستم اقتصادی و مالی پویا، کارآمد و باثبات، همراه با تشویق و تسهیل منجر به تولید شغل و کارآفرینی زنان شود. این مجموعه می­تواند در نهایت، از بروز تخلفات و موانع متعدد کاسته و بستر مناسب برای کاهش بیکاری و ارتقاء موقعیت اقتصادی-اجتماعی زنان در جامعه شهری ایران فراهم نماید.   واژه­های کلیدی: سیستم آموزشی، اشتغال زنان، بازار کار، مدیریت شهری، تهران، مونترال

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Women in Urban Labour Market (Comparative study: Cities of Tehran & Montréal)

نویسنده [English]

  • Z. Fanni
چکیده [English]

  Women in Urban Labour Market (Comparative study: Cities of Tehran & Montréal)       Received: 4 July 2011 / Accepted: 14 October 2011, 15-18 P   A. Shamai ( * )   Assistant professor of geography and urban planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran   e-mail: Z-fanni@sbu.ac.ir          Extended abstract   1- Intro duction   Employment has the main, vital roles in human life and socio-economical progressives (see: ILO, 2010, Women in Labour Markets: 2 Momsen, J. 2004). One of the important goals every socio-economical, political system in the world is to supply high social economical welfare which it will be done by equal distribution of income, improvement of educational, health and welfare facilities and opportunities for all. This will not be taken place unless all people (male and female) take part in economical affairs and activities (Refer to: Tzannatos, Z., 1998) . By further participation, the rate of fertility will be decreased, reversely productivity, production and GNP increased. Undoubtedly, the lead structural factors (Cultural, social, economical and political elements) have affected on male and female employment. This trend can make their labor or culture and behavior.     To improve employment it is apply to measure level of economical mechanisms. One of these evaluations may study the specifics of female employment in cities which are differing in economical, social, political and cultural policies. Female employment is much more affected by structural, historical factors which form total employment composition these factors are much varies in cities of the world.   1-1- Objectives   To detect effective structural elements on employment (esp. women) in both urban societies, Tehran and Montreal, in order to find out positive and negative distinctions   Study and evaluate positive aspects of culture of job and employment in a city which higher than 50 percent of women is employee and then conclude results and provide guideline for improve employment in Iran and Tehran.   1-2- Main question and Thesis   The main question of research is: what are causes of structural differences in the educational system in both cities, Tehran and Montreal? And what elements affect on female employment mainly?   The thesis related to this question is: educational system and job culture are the important differences in female employment of Tehran and Montreal. So, this thesis emphasis on distinction of education level between women in both cities.   This research supposes getting certificate and rank of education affect on the rate of female labour in the both cities. Therefore it was supposed that in these cities, there is difference between getting certificate and professional education and skills in entrance to labour market. Also, they are differing in attitude and thought with job and economic activity and this effect on rate of female employment.     2- Theoretical Bases   There are various theories about the situation of women in labour market including: Neoclasic theory, Labour Segmentation theory, Neo-liberalism and Feminism theory. These theories believe that gender roles are based on weak position of women in labour market. What that is important for this research is the effects of employment policies which have rooted by these theories, especially for women in both of developed and developing countries. One of these effects has been called “Female margination in urban employment”. By going over mentioned theories we can find out female employment more than men has been affected by global capitalism and neo-liberalism. This structural affectability of gender employment mechanism in both of study societies shows clear differences. For example, Montreal with high economic-social development, high educated female labour market has low attraction, while less educated women have been employed rapidly in low wage jobs. This trend has cleared dominant of extra beneficial approach and a kind of female margination on purposely which is differ from Tehran’s labor market deeply.       3– Discussion   Generally, there are many fundamental economical, social and political differences between Tehran and Montreal in their employment structures. This research has followed to discover the reasons of high rank female employment in Montreal in order to find out adjusting ways to reduce female unemployment in Tehran.   Everyone has to have equal opportunity for employment. Women like men should be independent person and authority socio-economically. So, the local government is responsible to provide or encourage individuals and institutes establishing enough jobs everywhere and every time.   There are many policies and strategies in employment field which facilitate to supply and help all of needs to have job. There are non-governmental organizations which provide social and economical situations to find job and expand it gradually. Some condition including: relative economic stability, growth of professional technical and scientific situations, bank facilities and etc. have easy entrance and participate women in Montreal’s labour market and the establish of small income institutes are rapid and easy. So, entrepreneurship especially for educated women is one of positive interest in Montreal which should be emphasis in Tehran too. Today, entrepreneur women have established many jobs for immigrant’s women. In spite of gender discrimination in labour market of Canada, it has been increased the rate of entrepreneur women and female employees.   Montreal like other cities in Canada is managed by Provincial Laws and policies. I referred to legal politic documents and official centers for knowing legal’s affects. Referring to administrable laws and policies in every society is the most important way for knowledge and explanation of facts. For example, one of financial laws in Quebec Province is providing low benefit loans to entrepreneurs and job seekers. So, all graduates from secondary level to high academic degrees can use financial helps and able to create several jobs for others as well as their selves. Therefore, they decrease dependency rate on economy of family, city and local government.     4– Conclusion   I have drive and concluded the results and proper recommendations as are follow:   Both of cities have shown much difference in rate of employed women, rate of participation and rate of unemployment. These differences have rooted in economic structure, policies and cultural conditions.   These cities are much variety at job, financial and administrative laws and citizenship rights and policies. So, they are differing at organizations, institutes and related job centers.   Educational system of Iran need to essential changes base on teaching skills instead of getting certificate. This transformation cause to motivate economic institutes that they emphasis on skills and professionals of labour forces. Subsequently, it should be low gender discrimination in labour market and unemployment for both men and women.   Determination or indetermination the age start a job is not criteria for job market preservation and urban economy health. But it may show especial culture and public thoughts about human personality and work substance.   At some cases, to neglect work start age, and to facilitate to have a reliable job (even part time job), not only improve human authority and independency but also, it has important role at increase rate of participation in labour market and decrease unemployment.   Of course, there are some reasons that women in Montreal mainly have been attracted by entrepreneurial market and self-employed activities including: gender discriminations at work place, high professional-technical training and high female personality, self-confidence and cultural situation.     5- Suggestions   Finally, by drawing, introduce and enhancing a new complete job culture or treatment, first among urban managers and policy makers then the rest of urban society, we able to transform and develop employment both men and women. It is possible especially through establish and improve a educational system base on skills and applied activities training for all people, enhancing public culture proper female employment, introduce a dynamic sufficient and stable economic system which encourage and facilitate creating job and female entrepreneurship. After that, it prospect to reduce job discrimination and illegal informal works, decrease unemployment and economic system health, improve the socio-economical situation of women.       References   Bahramitash, R. (2003), “Revolution, Islamization and Women’s Employment in Iran” 2003, postdoctoral fellow Simone de Beauvoir Institute Concordia university p 230-241.   Bahramitash, R. (2007) Iranian women during the reform Era(1994-2004) A focus on employment Journal of Middle East women's studies Vol. 3, Number 2, Spring 2007 (88-109).   Bahramitash, R. (2005), Libration from Liberalization: Gender and Globalization in Southeast Asia, Zed books.   Brugmann, Jeb. (2009), Welcome to the Urban Revolution: How Cities are changing the world, Canada: Viking Press.   Collins, J.L., & Leonardo, M.D. (2008), New Landscapes of Inequality: Neolibralism and the Erosion of Democracy in America, School for Advanced Research Press.   Domosh, M., and Joni S. (2001), putting in place: Feminist geographers make sense of the world, New York: Guilford press.   Elmi, Z. (2004) Economic macro policies and labour market in Iran, Female Researches (paghohesh_e Zanan), 7(2): 17-37.   Empolyability Services for Unempolyed Women, Montreal, Qubece, available in: http://www.centredesfemmesdemtl.org/en/optionelle/fema.html   Fagan B. and Dowling, R. (2005), Neoliberalism and Suburban Employment, Geographical Research, March (43)1: 71-81.   Fridemann, J., & Wolff, G., (1982), World City Formation: an agenda for research and action, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 6(3): 309-344.   Harvey, D. (1989), The Condition of Post modernity, Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.   http://sbinfocanada.about.com/cs/womeninbusiness/a/womenissues1.htm l   http://www.actew.org/projects/pwpsite/snapshots/canadian_women.html   http://www.aftab.ir/articles/view/economy_marketing_business/job/_entrepreneurship_p1.php   http://www.ilo.org/global/What_we_do/Statistics/standards /lang--en/index.htm l.   http://www.stat.gouv.qc.ca/donstat/societe/anals_difrn_sex/hmi_ads_an.htm#compensation   http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/prof   ILO. (2010), Women in Labour Markets: Measuring Progress and Identifying Challenges, Geneva: International labour Office.     Iranian Statistic center. (1996) Census of population & Housing, Total of Country.   Iranian Statistic center (1385) Census of population & Housing, Total of Country.   Momsen, J. (2004) Gender and Development, Translated by Zohreh Fanni (2009), Tehran University Press.   Momsen, J. H., 2004, Gender and Development, London: Routledge.   Noroozi, Ladan. (2004) Gender differences in employment structure, Tehran: Pazhuhish-I Zanan, No.1 (2), 172-184.   Quiggin, J., (2000), Neoliberal globalization and the scope for employment policy Development, (43) 2: 15-17 (1 June 2000).   Tam, V. C.W., (1999), foreign domestic helpers in Hong Kong and their role in childcare Provision` in Janet H. Momsen (ed.) Gender, Migration and Domestic Service, London and New York: Routledge.   Tzannatos, Zafiris, (1998), Women and Labour Market Changes in the Global Economy available in: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGENDER/Resources/tradezafiris.pdf   Walks, R. Alan, (2009), the urban in fragile, uncertain, neoliberal times: towards new geographies of social justice? Canadian Geographer, 53(3), 345-356.   Women and the EI Program, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, (2007), available in: http://www.policyalternatives.ca/documents/National_Office_Pubs/2007/Women_and_the_EI_Program.pdf   www.cnt.gouv.qc.ca   www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/labour/labour_law/index.html   Yazd Khasti, B. & Vakil Ahmadi, (2007) Evaluation of Female employment situation in Iran with emphasis on data 2006, Women studies Journal (Motaleate Zanan): 1 (3).   

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Professional Education system
  • Female employment
  • labour market
  • urban management
  • Tehran
  • Montreal