تحلیل جغرافیایی کانون‌های جرم‌خیز جرایم مرتبط با مواد مخدر در شهرکرمانشاه

نویسندگان

چکیده

  بزهکاری از جمله مفاهیمی است که به شدت تحت تاثیر مشخصه‌های مکانی و زمانی، زمینه‌های فرهنگی، مناسبات اجتماعی، ساختار اقتصادی و ملاحضات سیاسی قرار دارد. لزوم برقراری نظم و امنیت سبب شده است تا در تمامی جوامع، همواره رویارویی با بزهکاری مورد توجه قرار گرفته و حائز اهمیت باشد. بررسی‌ها نشان می‌دهد در بین انواع ناهنجاری‌های اجتماعی در شهر کرمانشاه جرایم مرتبط با مواد مخدر بیشترین میزان را به خود اختصاص داده و یکی از مشکلات مهم این شهر در مقطع کنونی محسوب می شود. این پژوهش با هدف تحلیل سازمان فضایی این ناهنجاری‌ها در شهر کرمانشاه با استفاده از مدل‌های آماری و سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی انجام یافته است. روش پژوهش تحلیلی و تطبیقی است و برای شناسایی الگوهای فضایی توزیع جرایم در سطح شهر از آزمون مرکز متوسط، بیضی انحراف معیار، آزمون خوشه‌بندی، شاخص‌های نزدیک‌ترین همسایه، تخمین تراکم کرنل و تحلیل شبکه استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش تمامی جرایم مرتبط با مواد مخدر است که در دوره زمانی یکساله در محدوده شهر کرمانشاه به وقوع پیوسته است. یافته‌ها نشان می دهد منطقه اسکان غیررسمی جعفرآباد و چهارراه رشیدی از مهمترین کانون‌های وقوع بزهکاری در ارتباط با جرایم مرتبط با مواد مخدر در شهر کرمانشاه محسوب می شوند و توزیع فضایی جرایم مورد بررسی در این شهر از الگوی خوشه‌ای و متمرکز پیروی می‌کند. بالا بودن کاربری‌های مسکونی و تجاری در این محدوده‌ها سبب شده است که بیشترین فراوانی وقوع جرایم در مجاورت این کاربری‌ها صورت بگیرد. همچنین بین تراکم جمعیت در این محدوده‌ها و نرخ وقوع بزهکاری در آنها رابطه مستقیم وجود دارد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Geographical Analysis of Hotspots of the Drug-Related Crimes in the City of Kermanshah

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Pishgahifard
  • M. Kalantari
  • F. Parhiz
  • E. Haghpanah
چکیده [English]

  Geographical Analysis of Hotspots of the Drug-Related Crimes in the City of Kermanshah    Z. Pishgahifard   Associate Professor of Political Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran     M. Kalantari   Associate Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran     F. Parhiz( * )   M.A. of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran   e-mail: Faryad.Parhiz@yahoo.com     E. Haghpanah   M.A. of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran   Received: 15 September 2010 / Accepted: 14 May 2011, 19-22 P             Extended abstract   1-Introduction   Kermanshah is one of those cities which face many problems of urban development in the course of the past two decades. The spatial, anatomical, and social conditions of this city caused the statics of crimes to increase. In addition, the studies show that drug-related crimes are statistically more than other social abnormalities. Therefore, it is required that the local conditions of these crimes is identified in Kermanshah using modern technologies and based on scientific methods, in order to take practical and executive measures to remove such conditions or reduce the effects of such situations.     This research, thus, aims to identify and analyze the spatial organization of social abnormalities of drug-related crimes in the city of Kermanshah using statistical models and geographical data system.     2-Theoretical bases   Upon physical and social development of cities, and changing to socially and culturally inhomogeneous population, the rate of urban abnormalities, especially in central areas and fringes of cities, has increased accordingly. Urban crimes cause many personal, social, and national damages. Therefore, different studies have been conducted based on theoretical systems to research the social, economic, geographical and even psychological cause of the emergence and increase of such social abnormalities in big cities. For this purpose, hypotheses and practical models have been provided to study the different aspects of such abnormalities. The interface of these theories is the importance given to the role of environment in delinquency and also its impacts on prevention of crimes. One of the prominent theories in this field is the notion of "Hotspots of Crime ", defined as follows: a geographical location in which the occurrence of crime is more than average rate, or a region in which crime is more concentrated in comparison to the distribution of crime in the whole area.     3-Discussion   According to the findings of the research, the most important hotspot of drug-related crimes is the unofficially settled neighborhood of Jafarabad and Rashidi region in the southeast of Kermanshah. The spatial distribution of the studied crimes in the city of Kermanshah has a concentrated and cluster model this means that in certain regions of this city, crime has been concentrated, and many areas are clean in terms of delinquency and commitment of crimes. The higher share of residential and commercial users existing in the said neighborhoods has significant impacts on the increase of crime in these regions of the city of Kermanshah. On the other hand, no occupation or profession is practiced in relation to the needs of the citizens of these regions or for giving services regarding the residential and commercial use of these two neighborhoods. There is also a great need to some services in these regions, including health services, public utilities, cultural services, and police services. Therefore, the uses of the urban lands may be effective in and pave the way for the commitment of crimes. On the other hand, there are some local characteristics, which may be criminally deterrent.   Moreover, there is a direct relation between population density in these areas, and the rate of crimes, in such a way that the relative density of population in these areas is highly more than that of other regions of Kermanshah. As a result, the rate of crime is more than that of other areas.     4-Conclusion   The most important hotspot of drug-related crimes is the unofficially settled regions of Jafarabad and Rashidi (southeast of the city) in the city of Kermanshah. The spatial distribution of crimes in the city of Kermanshah has a concentrated and cluster model. Among drug-related crimes, the crime of drug abuse, with 404 cases equal to 47.15 percent of the total drug-related crimes, is the most frequent crime and drug trafficking, with 52 cases equal to 6.06 percent of the total crimes, is the least frequent crime. The high density of residential and commercial use of these two neighborhoods and lack of those land-uses to meet the needs of the citizens of these regions have great impacts on the geographical distribution of the type and rate of crimes and formation of spatial models of crimes in the said regions. 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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Spatial
  • spatial-local patterns
  • drug-related crimes
  • local patterns
  • Hotspot
  • drug
  • related crimes
  • Kermanshah