تحلیلی بر دلایل مهاجر فرستی شهرهای کوچک «مطالعه موردی شهر قیدار»

نویسندگان

چکیده

  مهاجرت از شهرهای کوچک یکی از اساسی‌ترین مسایلی است که کشورهای جهان سوم با آن روبرو هستند. این نوع مهاجرت‌ها نشان دهنده پیامد عدم تعادل در مجموعه سکونت گاهای شهری و سطوح نابرابر توسعه در جوامع شهری است. جمعیت‌زدایی ناشی از مهاجرت در شهرهای کوچک به عنوان یک عامل خارجی، نظم طبیعی رشد جمعیت را بر هم می‌زند و اختلالات عمده‌ای را در وجوه ساختاری جمعیت و حرکات آن ایجاد می‌کند. در این پژوهش به منظور درک زمینه‌های مهاجر فرستی در شهرهای کوچک، یکی از شهرهای استان زنجان (شهر قیدار) مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. شهر کوچک قیدار علی‌رغم پتانسیل‌ها به دلیل برخورداری اندک از سطح امکانات و زیرساخت‌های اقتصادی و اجتماعی، به عنوان شهر مهاجر فرست عمل می‌نمایند. تحقیق حاضر با شناخت عوامل مؤثر بر مهاجر فرستی در شهر قیدار و با استفاده از روش توصیفی – تحلیلی انجام گرفته است. داده‌های تحقیق عمدتاً از طریق روش میدانی (مصاحبه و پرسشگری و پیمایش) جمع‌آوری شده است. پایایی پرسشنامه‌ها با محاسبه ضریب آلفای کروبناخ 88% به دست آمده است که نشان دهنده همسانی درونی بالای پرسش‌های میدانی است. بعد از گردآوری داده‌ها، از نرم افزار SPSS برای تحلیل آنها استفاده شده است. در این پژوهش به منظور شناسایی زمینه‌های مهاجر فرستی شهر قیدار، متغیرها و شاخص‌هائی شناسایی و مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته‌اند. نتایج تحلیل پرسشنامه‌ها از 400 نفر از سرپرستان خانوار که از شهر قیدار مهاجرت کرده اند نشان دهنده آن است که اگر چه شاخص‌های اقتصادی در ایجاد انگیزه مهاجرت از شهر قیدار مؤثر است اما بدون تردید بین فرآیند تصمیم گیری برای مهاجرت و متغیر‌های تأثیرگذاری دیگری نظیر کمبود مکانی – فضائی خدمات شهری، کیفیت زندگی در شهر مبدا، تاثیر عملکرد مدیریت شهری، عوامل جاذبه در مرکز استان، اعتقادات هنجاری و شاخص‌های تبعی (طیف گسترده‌ای از زمینه‌های مهاجرت را تشکیل می‌دهند) و مهاجر فرستی از شهر قیدار رابطه معنی داری وجود دارد.   واژه­های کلیدی: مهاجرت، مهاجر فرستی، شهرهای کوچک، قیدار، زنجان

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyzing reasons of migrant sending in small cities (case study Gheidar)

نویسنده [English]

  • E. Nasiri
چکیده [English]

  Analyzing reasons of migrant sending in small cities (case study Gheidar)       E. Nasiri ( * )   Assistant Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran   e-mail: esmael.nasiri@yahoo.com   Received: 11 September 2010 / Accepted: 14 June 2011, 27-30 P           Extended abstract   1-Introduction   In Iran with development in industrial and financial infrastractures, profitable activities in large cities have conducted and made these cities main centers of wage-earner labor force and so migration from small cities to large cities has increased through interaction urbanization and migration.Consequently, population balance between small cities and large cities have been deranged.   Migration is mainly influenced by lack of suitable economic infrastructures and underlined services in these small cities and also expectation better employement and pay and health/ educational/ convenience services in big cities.   Migration from small cities is one of the most important subjects in third world. This type of migration shows lack of balance in urban settlement complex and also inequalities of development in urban societies.     2- Theoretical Bases   In the most of early reaserches about impact of migration, economical, social, cultural, geographical and communicational factors are emphasized abstractly. Nowadays, there is a consensus on influence of variety of factors on migration.   In most of developing country, the large cities have high levels economic, social services and this has made small cities pheripheral spaces. There are different approaches about reasons of migration.According to Lee theory, factors of pulls and repulsive are very important motives to migration, pulls factors is concerned with purpose and repulsive factors with origin.     3-Discussion   To deep understanding reasons of migrant sending in small cities, in this analysis migration in one of the cities of Zanjan Province, Gheidar has been examined.   Small city of Gheidar, despite of potentials, due to lack of possibilites and social and economic infrastructures act such as migrant sending center. The researches have done by using of analytical-describtive method with identifying effective factors on migrant sending in Gheidar. Research data is mainly collected by field method (survey, questionnaire, and interview).Questionnares perpeturity is achieved %88 by calculating Kronbakh Alfa coefficient that indicates squre questiones’s high internal parallelism. After data gathering spss software is used to analyze them.   In this research in order to recognize backgrounds of Gheidar’s migrant sending, two categories of external and internal factors are evaluated.     4-conclusion   One of the important and principal components of migration is quality of life. In this research in order to recognize backgrounds of Gheidar’s migrant sending to Zanjan, we identified and evaluated two categories of external and internal factors. Results show the background of migrant sending in Gheidar is a social, cultural and economical behavior The available data has been analyzed and the conclusion is that economic, social and cultural factors are important for migration .   In fact, questionnaires results of 400 family head man who migrated from Gheidar showed that although economic factors influence on forming migration incentive but there is a meaningful relation between decision making process for migration, and other effective factories such as lack of space for urban services, quality of life in origin city, influence of urban management performance, attractive factors in center of province, normal beliefs and indexes and migrant sending.   To compare importance economical factors (M=3/20, S=0/72) with cultural factors (0/82m==3/40), as barrier of living in Gheidar, view of family heads about importance of effective economical and cultural factors on migration and t test was held (t=5/40,p=0.00).This test shows that these individuals regard economic factors more important than cultural ones. Z rate (-5/23) and (4/18) in statistics analyze shows importance of sustainable employement and high wages and also second job for emigrants. In addition, according to data of questionnaires, migration resulting from unemployment factor (88/2),is a seasonal migration at the beginning and later have changed into permanent migration.     5-suggestions   5-1- designing laws and regulations of urban development and use of specialized manangement in urban infrastructure section to attract and maintenance of population.   5-2- decentralization services and possibilities from province centers to removing reasons and backgrounds of migrant sending in small cities.   5-3- making balance between large and small cities in Zanjan Province to balance integrated development planning policies in province level.   5-4- recognization of strong and weak points of to attract of population and migrant sending.   5-5- improvement of service space development in Gheidar according to citizen needs.           Refrences   Bradan, F. (2010), Migration (approach and new planning in cities) Delhi Press 456P   Clin, B. 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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Migration
  • migrant sending
  • small cities
  • Gheidar
  • Zanjan