تولید سفرهای درون شهری و تاثیرپذیری از تنوع کاربری زمین، نمونه موردی چهار محدوده مسکونی در شهر شیراز

نویسندگان

هیات علمی

چکیده

نحوه چیدمان کاربری‌ها و توزیع فعالیت‌ها در سطح شهر، از عوامل تاثیرگذار بر الگوهای حمل و نقل شهری است. تامین خدمات ساکنین به گونه‌ای که نیاز به طی مسافت‌های طولانی به حداقل برسد یکی از راهکارهای کاهش ترافیک در شهرها است. از آنجا که تقاضای سفر از پراکنش کاربری‌های عمده از جمله محل کار، مراکز آموزشی، مراکز تفریحی و یا مراکز خدماتی مشتق می‌شود، بخشی از کاهش حجم تقاضا از مجرای اعمال سیاست‌های ساماندهی کاربری زمین، قابل حصول است. در این تحقیق، نقش توزیع و تنوع کاربری‌ها در شکل گیری الگوهای ترافیکی به صورت تجربی بررسی شده است. به این منظور اطلاعات مربوط به رفتار ترافیکی و خصوصیات اجتماعی- اقتصادی 455 نفر از ساکنان چهار محدوده مسکونی شهر شیراز جمع آوری و رابطه بین عوامل مختلف با مقایسه تطبیقی به کمک روش‌های آماری تحلیل واریانس و همبستگی خطی تحلیل گردید. نتایج حاکی از آن است که تولید سفرهای درون شهری با متغیرهای اقتصادی- اجتماعی و تنوع کاربری‌ها رابطه دارد. با افزایش تنوع کاربری‌ها در سطح محلات مسکونی، نیاز ساکنین به مراجعه به حوزه فراتر از محدوده سکونتی خود کاهش می‌یابد. دسترسی به خدمات متنوع در سطوح محلی موجب کاهش حجم سفر در مسافت‌های طولانی می‌شود ولی حضور چنین خدماتی، خود مشوق افزایش حجم سفر در سطح محلی است. انتخاب مقصد سفر در درون یا بیرون محدوده سکونتی متاثر از ترکیب و ساختار خانوار است، به طوری که خانوارهای دارای افراد بزرگسال، حجم بیشتری از سفرهای برون حوزه‌ای را نسبت به خانوارهای دارای فرزندان خردسال یا دانش‌آموز تجربه می‌کنند. برخورداری خانوار از اتومبیل باعث افزایش حجم سفر در دو محدوده درون حوزه‌ای و برون حوزه‌ای است. مکان‌یابی فعالیت‌ها بر اساس سهولت دسترسی، توسعه کاربری‌ها مختلط و رعایت سلسله مراتب توزیع خدمات از جمله پیشنهادهای کاربردی این پژوهش است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Trip generation and its relationship with land use diversity: Case studies of four urban districts in Shiraz metropolitan area

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Izadi
  • A. Soltani
  • A. Pakshir
  • A. Pakshir
  • T. Saghapoor
چکیده [English]

  Trip generation and its relationship with land use diversity: Case studies of four urban districts in Shiraz metropolitan area     A. Soltani, T. Saghapoor, H. Izadi, A. Pakshir   Received: May 08, 2011/ Accepted: November 13, 2011, 1-4 P   Extended abstract   1-Introduction   This paper attempts to discover the differences existing among case study areas in terms of trip generation despite the varied physical attributes among them. The research hypotheses include: first, there is a significan difference in trip generation per capita (inter-zonal and intra-zonal trips) among the case study areas. Secondly, there is a linear correlation between land use diversity and trip generation. Thirdly, socio-economic charactristics are associated with trip genertation. Travel diary data of four urban districts of Shiraz metropolitan-were collected through questionnaire survey of totally 455 individuals - to examine the link between trip generation and land use patterns at a community level.    The research focused on the potential role of socio economic, spatial and traffic factors in reducing extra-zonal trips.   The case study areas included two urban districts located whithin Region 1 (Molasadra and Ferdousi), and two of Region 4 (Ghodousi and Ghadamgah). Regions 1 and 4 are important parts of Shiraz Metropolitan which are located on north and west of Shiraz respectively. These districts were selected based on the differences existed in socio-economic and physical attrributes. For this reason, two indices including median household income level and land use mix entropy were applied.     2- Theoretical bases   The location of activities and distribution of land uses may have a great influence on travel behavior. In this way, land use mixing policy may be used as a practical solution in order to reducing traffic congestion. Since travel demand is derived from the distribution of main land uses and activities including job location, educational centers, recreational sites or public service areas, thus reducing travel demand through applying land use policies are recommended.     3– Discussion   Trip generation at local level is affected by household charactristics however, its inter-zonal and intra-zonal patterns are different. Trip destination choosing is influenced by household requirements. Households with greater number of adults and students try to choose their travel destination out of zone area, while thoes households with more school students and children are intersted to achieve their daily needs whithin the zone. In the other words, facilities whithin zone border are supportive for some limited requirements. On the other hand, having a vehicle available encourages higher trip generation. It was found no significant correlation between trip generation and some social factors such as individual income, household’s head income, education and number of employees. The number of inter-zonal and intra-zonal trips is affected by the presence of non-residential activities as well as land use diversity. The higher the share of non-residential activities, the higher the inter-zonal trip generation is. In fact, having accessibility to varied local services and facilities can discourage making long trips, while local trips are expected to increase.     4– Conclusion   A comparative description and the results of statistical analysis including analysis of variance and bivariate linear correlation indicated that there is a functional relationship between land use diversity and the volume of urban travel as either intra-zonal or extra-zonal. Therefore, an appropriate distribution of urban services can be useful in reducing extra-zonal trips leading to a considerable decline in traffic volume. Local facility providing may encourage residents to travel more. Trip generation is also associated with household type. Households with adults make more external trips than those comprising children. In addition, owning a car increases the probability of making trips.     5– Suggestions   Some of the applied suggestions of this study could be summarized activity allocation basing on accessibility to transport networks and facilities as well as mixed development at local scale. Furthermore, if local services are distributed according to a hierarchical structure, then commuting to diversified parts of the metropolitan would decrease significantly.   Key words: Land Use, Trip Generation, Accessibility, Urban Facilities, Shiraz.     References   Ahmadi, M. and Moharram-negad, N. (2006). 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Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 33(2), pp.69-75.   Ewing, R., et al., (2007), Land Use Impacts on Trip Generation Rates, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board , Volume 1518 / 1996 , 1-6.   Frank, L., (2000), Linking land use with household vehicle emissions in the central Puget sound: methodological framework and findings Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment Volume 5, Issue 3 , May 2000, Pages 173-196 .   Gordon, P. and Richardson, H. (1997), Are Compact Cities a Desirable Goal? American Planning Association Journal, 63(1), pp. 95-106.   Jahanshahloo, L. and Amini, A. (2005). Urban planning and its role in achieving sustainable urban transport, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran.   Keyanegad, G. (2008). Optimum pattern of sustainable transport system in developing countries, presented in 8th Conference on Tranport Engineering and Traffic, Tehran.   Knaap, G. and Song, Y. 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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Land Use
  • Trip Generation
  • Accessibility
  • Urban Facilities
  • Shiraz