قابلیت‌ها و تنگناه‌های توسعه محور شرق در شرایط امروز ایران و منطقه

نویسندگان

چکیده

  با عنایت به تفاوت چشمگیر توسعه یافتگی میان استان‌های شرقی و غربی کشور، طرح توسعه محور شرق قرینه محور غرب یعنی خوزستان- آذربایجان به منظور توسعه مناطق حاشیه­ای و همچنین بهره­برداری از موقعیت سوق الجیشی ایران در سال 1367 تهیه و ارایه گردید. با توجه به گذشت نزدیک به دو دهه از تهیه این طرح و تحولات بسیار زیاد منطقه و کمتر قابل پیش­بینی در طی این مدت، این مقاله در پی آن است با استفاده از برنامه­ریزی راهبردی که روشی نظام یافته برای اخذ تصمیمات و اجرای فعالیت‌ها در خصوص شکل­دهی و رهنمود یک سیاست محسوب می­شود، به تأثیر اجرای این سیاست بر توسعه شرق کشور به ویژه استان سیستان و بلوچستان با روش توصیفی – تحلیلی و با استفاده از مدل تحلیلی SWOT بپردازد. نتایج حاصله نشان می دهد که در بعد عوامل درونی، موقعیت سوق الجیشی چابهار به عنوان مهم­ترین نقطه قوت با میانگین وزنی 1/4 و ضعف شبکه‌های زیربنایی شامل حمل و نقل، تامین و توزیع انرژی به عنوان مهم­ترین نقطه ضعف با میانگین وزنی 8/4 محسوب می­شود. از سویی در بعد عوامل خارجی وجود بندر چابهار به عنوان دروازه مبادلات با میانگین وزنی 6/3 به عنوان مهم­ترین فرصت و قرار گرفتن در مسیر بین­المللی مواد مخدر و قاچاق کالا با میانگین وزنی 6/3 مهم­ترین تهدید در توسعه محور شرق محسوب می­شود. از این رو اتخاذ و اجرای این سیاست به افزایش نقش و سهم کشور در ترانزیت کالا و حمل و نقل بین­المللی، تقویت پیوندهای اقتصادی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی و امنیتی با کشورهای همجوار شرق و شمال شرقی، ارتقاء سطح متوسط درآمد و شاخص‌های توسعه در نواحی شرق کشور، کاهش فعالیت‌های غیررسمی اقتصادی و جلوگیری از قاچاق کالا و مواد مخدر، افزایش سهم چابهار در بازرگانی داخلی و خارجی و ترانزیت کالا و غیره کمک شایانی می­نماید و در غیر این صورت، رونق گرفتن بندر گواتر پاکستان و از دست دادن فرصت­ها، زمینه شکست این طرح را به همراه خواهد داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Capabilities and Threats of East Corridor Development in the current situation of Iran and Region

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Eskandari Sani
  • T. Tavoosi
  • M. Hosseinzade Kermani
چکیده [English]

  Capabilities and Threats of East Corridor Development in the current situation of Iran and Region     T. Tavoosi, M. Eskandari Sani, M. Hosseinzade Kermani   Received: September 06, 2010/ Accepted: October 14, 2011, 19-22 P     Extended abstract   1- Introduction   Based on center- periphery development model, South East region of Iran is one of the areas that is located peripheral and has been far away from development process. In this regard for the homogeneous development of Iran as well as taking advantage of Iran's strategic location “East Corridor Development Plan” were presented for the first time in 1988. The most important objectives of this plan are: increasing the role and share of Iran in transit and international transportation, strengthening the economic, social, cultural and security ties with neighboring countries of East and Northeast, Raising the level of income and development indicators in the eastern region, Reducing informal economic    activities and preventing smuggling and drug trafficking, promoting the share of Chabahar in domestic and foreign trade as well as transit of goods , etc. due to many changes in Middle East and displacement and change of different variables caused by passing this plan, identifying the capabilities, weaknesses, strengths and threats in the current situation is crucial. For example, at the beginning of the project, there aren’t variables such as presence of Talban, Chinese and Arab investments in Pakistani port of Goiter and other factors which this research tried to consider and analyze.     2- Theoretical bases   Spatial planning means rational and efficient use of space in order to realize the value of effective economic and social functions. In this type of planning, it is essential to identify the areas of territory, because it is known as the basis of the planning. The history of spatial planning- as an advanced method and complementary in planning- dates back to before the World War II and Christaller’s theory- Spatial distribution of towns and town as a geographical and political unit, le Corbusier’s theory- distribution of functions across a territory- industrial and services location in the market economy specially Izard, Poire, Allen Scott and others. Spatial planning in Iran began in late 1965 and was inspired by French experience and theories of French economist -Francois Peru- on Growth poles which was compatible with the situation in Iran, by chance.     3- Discussion   Data analysis results show that: the most important opportunity in the East corridor development is Chabahar port as a gateway for exchange and on the other side, its location on the way of international drug trafficking is considered a major threat. Moreover the main strength is Chabahar’s strategic location relative to other ports of Iran and on the other side, lack of network infrastructure including transport energy and geographical isolation are the main domestic weaknesses. Based on previous results, the most important Competitive/ Offensive strategies focusing on the internal strengths and external opportunities include Chabahar Port’s ability to be converting to a mega port for expansion of its capability for importing and exporting goods and significant consumer markets in Central Asia and Afghanistan. Diversification strategies, i.e. internal strengths and external threats, are optimal use of strategic position of Chabahar in all fields including energy, transport and goods, helping to stabilize and secure Afghanistan. Review strategies -emphasising on internal weaknesses, trying to take advantage of external opportunities to overcome weaknesses faced- include development of road lines, revision of the growth pole policy and development planning based on the spatial theory. Finally, Defensive strategies are Closure of way of international drug and goods smuggling development of regional cooperation such as ASEAN and Advice for overcoming ethnic and tribal conflicts in some area of east corridor.     4- Conclusion   It is necessary to balance development in Iran and considering the limited resources, capacities and position of east corridor, using the opportunists is essential. With the implementation of this project as soon as possible, more than 50 large and small cities will be involved in the process of businesse, jobs, services, etc and it creates extensive dynamisms in the region's economy and society. Moreover, it may be the best strategy for spatial equality in Iran which helps to improve suitable security in east province. Overall, this plan is an effective step the area’s development in unit 2025.     5- Suggestion   Bed-making to local sustainable development by relying on local capital and increasing the role of area resident in the development process.   Review the distribution of investments and attempts to eliminate social exclusion imposed by administrative and political system.   Policy and diplomatic development between Iran and others countries   Transit infrastructure development and East region to equip airline, rail and shipping to increasing Iran's share of the huge revenue of transit Especially railroads Chabahar – Mashhad   Attracting foreign capital and technology to the region.   Full implementation of comprehensive physical port of Chabahar   Production and development of new energies, especially wind and solar energy in the region   Development of coastal facilities such as a coastal beach, hotel, restaurant for use the beautiful beaches and pristine the Gulf of Oman in order to Attracting tourists and create new jobs for local people   Promoting public cultural by development of training centers, university and etc.   Activation of Border Market which across the external borders of the provinces in the East corridor.   Key words: Capabilities, Threats, East Corridor Development, Iran.     References   Afrakhteh, Hassan (2006) The problems of regional development and border cities: A case study of Zahedan, Iran, Cities, Vol. 23, No. 6.   Ahmadi, Hassan (1995), the assessment criteria of physical plans, Journal of Architecture and Urban Planning, N 18.   Arndt, H.W. 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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Capabilities
  • Threats
  • East Corridor Development
  • Iran