گردشگری خانه‌های دوم و اثرات آن بر بهبود کیفیت زندگی ساکنان روستایی (مطالعه موردی: بخش رودبار قصران، شهرستان شمیرانات)

نویسندگان

چکیده

  از جمله الگوهای گردشگری در نواحی روستایی، گردشگری خانه­های دوم است. گردشگری خانه­های دوم همانند دیگر انواع گردشگری دارای آثار مختلف اقتصادی، اجتماعی و زیست محیطی است. تاثیر این نوع گردشگری بر کیفیت زندگی ساکنان محلی می‌تواند از جمله این اثرات باشد در این­ راستا هدف پژوهش بررسی­وتبیین اثرات گردشگری خانه‌های دوم در بهبود کیفیت زندگی ساکنان محلی در ناحیه روستایی رودبار قصران است. روش شناسی این تحقیق توصیفی و تحلیلی و داده‌های مورد نیاز با اسنفاده از پرسشنامه گردآوری شده است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش ساکنان محلی در روستاهای ناحیه است که در هر یک از روستاهای نمونه به طور برابر 22 سرپرست خانوار به عنوان حجم نمونه تعیین شدند. همچنین با بهره­گیری از آزمون‌های آماری در محیطی نرم افزار SPSS داده­های جمع آوری شده مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که گردشگری خانه‌های دوم در ناحیه روستایی رودبار قصران نقش موثری بر بهبود کیفیت زندگی ساکنان محلی داشته است. به طوری که از 9 قلمرو مورد مطالعه در هفت قلمرو کیفیت محیط، فعالیت و اشتغال، مسکن، سلامت و رفاه، درآمد و ثروت، مشارکت و همبستگی و امنیت و بهزیستی فردی، موجب بهبود کیفیت زندگی ساکنان محلی شده ولی در دو قلمرو آموزش ـ فرهنگ، تفریح و اوقات فراغت بهبودی حاصل نشده است. همچنین نتایج در خصوص اثرات گردشگری خانه­های دوم بر قلمروهای کیفیت زندگی نشان دهنده آنست که جز در قلمرو مسکن در دیگر قلمروها تفاوت معناداری در بین روستاهای مورد مطالعه وجود دارد.   

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of second home tourism on improving life quality of rural residents (Case: Roudbar-e Qasran Districtـ Shemiranat County)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M.R. Rezvani
  • S. R. Akbarian Roonizi
  • S.A. Badri
  • F. Sepahvand
  • S. R. Akbarian Roonizi
چکیده [English]

  The effects of second home tourism on improving life quality of rural residents (Case: Roudbar-e Qasran District ـ Shemiranat County)     M.R. Rezvani, S.A. Badri, F. Sepahvand, S. R. Akbarian Roonizi   Received: April 20, 2011/ Accepted: Decdmber 15, 2011, 5-9 P     Extended abstract   1-Introduction   Quality of life as a multidimensional concept and important aspect of living in human communities has been penetrated in many scientific fields including tourism. The relationship between tourism and local communities’ quality of life is generally considered and the subject is classified in relation to economic, social - cultural and environmental aspects. areas is considered as one of the patterns of tourism whose growth and development could have profound changes in many objective  Tourism as a major area of activity can improve quality of life for local residents. The pattern of second home tourism in rural and subjective parameters and characteristics of macro-economic, social, cultural and environmental aspects of destination communities. Quality of life in rural areas not only is affected by the factors, activities and events that exist in rural areas but also by external factors that affect the village and its inhabitants. The analysis of this type of tourism was necessary and important in the process of planning of rural development and rural tourism development. Thus, the main goal of the study is to investigate second home tourism’s effects on improving life quality of local residents in rural areas of Rudbar Qasran (Shemiranat County of Tehran province). Second home tourism has historically been promoted in the area since 1981, is suffused with life and consequently has had a profound impact on the lives of local residents. Therefore, recognizing the effects of this model of tourism on the rural residents’ quality of life can provide the appropriate tourism development and promotion of quality of life for residents of the area.     2- Theoretical bases   The formation and development of second homes caused from the development of tourism, is one of the important phenomena of the twentieth century and current century. A large part of second homes are built in rural areas. Second home tourism is emerged as an activity of the complex relationships between stakeholders in different locations due to various other activities. Therefore, its activities create the desired, undesired or complex effects on environmental, economic and social - cultural aspects of the host communities. When an area becomes a tourist destination second home, it affects lives of local residents. Local residents’ quality of life is improved by the development of second homes hence, they are more likely to develop the activity. Thus, second homes tourism creates the change of economic, social, and environmental characteristics that can lead to an improvement in the quality of life. Quality of life is a concept that defines human life. This is a reflection of several factors and features that is usually synonymous with prosperity, opportunity, life satisfaction and prosperity, meeting demands, life power, capacity building, poverty, human poverty, living standards and development. When quality of life was introduced, its measurement was considered and a number of research and studies were performed in this field. Measuring indicators of quality of life (at any level) can be mainly classified in two categories: objective indicators and subjective indicators. Thus, to measure the quality of life, different areas have been provided by researchers. But the review, understanding and combining these areas, with emphasis on the researcher's goal, is important. Thus the role of second homes tourism in the quality of life is clarified through environmental, economic and social data that can be calculated by the host community and based on objective and subjective approaches. Here, in this article the objective approach has been applied.     3- Discussion   Second home tourism areas would improve environmental quality, housing, health and welfare, participation and solidarity, work and employment, income and wealth has been exemplary in all villages. The results of this attempt show that second home tourism has influences in rural areas of Rudbar Qasran local residents’ quality of life. So, in seven realms of nine studied realms including environmental quality, activity and employment, housing, health and welfare, income and wealth, participation and solidarity and the individual security and welfare have improved the local residents’ quality of life but in two realms of education-culture and recreation-leisure, there was no improvement.     4- Conclusion   Second home tourism is one of the effective phenomena in rural areas that made an improvement or a decline in the quality of life of rural residents. The results show that second home tourism has played an effective role in the quality of life of local residents in the rural areas. In seven of the nine territorial scope of the study, including the quality of the environment, activities and employment, housing, health and welfare, income and wealth, participation and solidarity, and security and personal well-being, there was an improvement in the quality of life of local residents but in the realm of education, culture, recreation and leisure there was no improvement. The results also show that the impact of tourism on the quality of life of second home tourism realm, there is a significant difference among the villages in all realms, except in the housing.     5- Suggestions   The following suggestions are offered as the effective role of second homes tourism in quality of life of local residents:   - Managing growth and expansion of second home tourism and preventing its unplanned promotion   - Coordinating local agencies and executive agencies in the development of second homes tourism   - Participation of people and local communities in the development of second homes tourism- Management of the tourism impacts and   - Monitoring the tourism impacts.       References   Andrews, F. and Withey, S. (1976), Social Indicators of Well-being, American’s Perceptions of Life Quality. NY: Plenum Press.   Blyth, C. (1972), Subjective vs. objective methods in statistics. American Statistician 26(3): 20-22.   Eftekhari, A.R., Fatahi, A and Hajipoor, M. (2001), Spatial Distribution Assessment Quality of Life in rural Area, Journal of Rural Research, Vol.6, pp69-94.   Eid, M. and E. Diener. (2004), Globlal judgements of subjective well-being: Situational variability and long-term stability. Social Indicators Research 65(3): 245-277.   Grgi, I., Zimbrek, T., Tratnik, M., Markovina, J., and Jura, J. (2010), Quality of life in rural areas of Croatia: To stay or to leave? African Journal of Agricultural Research. Pp.653-660.   Jafari J. (2000), Encyclopedia of tourism Routledge.   Kharazmi, SH. (2005), quality of life and digital era requirement of Iran. Journal the word of economics.   Kim, K (2002), the Effects of Tourism Impacts upon Quality of Residents in the Community. (Ph.D. Dissertation). Blacksburg, Virginia: Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.   Kowkabi, A. (2005), planning quality of life in the city centers: definitions and index, research of city planning. No 12   Mahdavi,M., Ghadiri,M.M & Sanaee,M.(2008), The Role and Impact of Secondary Houses on Economical and Social Structure of Kelardasht, Human Geography Research Quarterly, No.65,pp.19-52.   Majedi,M. and Lahsaeizadeh,A.(2007), Relationships between Contextual Variables Social Capital and Satisfaction form Quality of Life: A case Study in Rural Areas of Fars Province of Iran Journal of Village and Development, No.4, pp.91-135.   Marjavaara, R (2008), Second Home Tourism the Root to Displacement in Sweden? Doctoral Dissertation Department of Social and Economic Geography Umea University, Sweden GERUM.   McGillivray, M. ( 2007), Human Well-Being, Concept and Measurement. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.   Müller, D.K., Hall, C.M. and Keen, D. (2004), Second Home Tourism Impact, Planning and Management. In C.M. Hall, and D.K. Müller (Eds.) Tourism, Mobility and Second Homes: Between Elite Landscape and Common Ground, pp. 15-32. Clevedon: Channel View.   Park, M. (2009), Social disruption theory and crime in rural communities: Comparisons across three levels of tourism growth, Tourism Management 30, pp. 905–915 .   Portaheri, M, Eftekhari, A.R and Fatahi, A. (2001), Assessment Quality of life in Rural Area(Case study: Northern Khaveh Village, Lorestan Province), Human Geography Research Quarterly,No.76, pp.13-32.   Rezvani, M.R. and Safaie, J. (2004), Second Home Tourism and Impact on Rural Area, Researches in Geograohy, No, 54, pp109-121.   Rezvani, M.R. (2003), Analysis on the Creation and Spread of Second Homes in Rural Areas, Research in Geography, No.45, pp.59-73.   Rezvani, M.R. (2008), Rural Tourism Development (Sustainable Tourism Approach), Vol.1, University of Tehran Publication, Tehran, Tehran.   Rezvani, M.R. and Mansurian, H. (2008), Assessment of Quality of Life: Study of Concepts, Indicators, and Model for Rural Areas, Journal of Village and Development, Vol.11, No.3.   Salehi nasab, Z., (2005), Second Home and Impact on Rural area Case study: Rodbar Ghasran, M.S Thesis, University of Tehran.   Seidaiy S. E., Khosravi Nezhad M., Kiani S.,(2010), The effect of second homes on development of Baghbahadoran Region , No.4, pp. 19-36.   Sharpley, R. (2001), Rural Tourism, Translated. R. Monshizadeh, & F. Nasiri, Vol.1, Monshi Publication, Tehran .   ZielinskaWczkowska, H., and dziora-Kornatowska, K.W.( 2010), Evaluation of quality of life (QoL) of students of the University of Third Age (U3A) on the basis of socio-demographic factors and health status, Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 1-5.         

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rural tourism
  • Second homes tourism
  • Tourism Impacts
  • Quality of Life
  • Rudbar Qasran