تحلیلی بر نقش شهرهای کوچک در توسعه اقتصادی- اجتماعی روستاهای پیرامون (مطالعه موردی: شهرستان قیروکارزین)

نویسندگان

چکیده

  در دو دهه گذشته توجه ویژه­ای به نقش شهر‌های کوچک در توسعه نواحی روستایی و عملکرد مثبت آنها در الگوی سکونتگاهی مناسب در کشورهای در حال توسعه شده است. مراکز شهری کوچک کارکردهای مهم - بازار نزدیک برای تولیدات کشاورزان، مکانی برای ایجاد فرصت‌های شغلی کوچک، مرکزی برای تولید خدمات اجتماعی، مرکزی برای انتشار اخبار و اطلاعات جدید از بازار کالاها و خدمات، مکانی برای اسکان جمعیت فاقد زمین و مسکن روستایی- بر پسکرانه‌های خود دارند. در این پژوهش به بررسی میزان رابطه روستاهای پیرامونی با شهرستان قیروکارزین و توسعه اقتصادی- اجتماعی آنها و تاثیرگذاری عوامل جغرافیایی بر این مقوله پرداخته­ شده است. ادبیات توسعه شهرهای کوچک، نحوه انتخاب شاخص‌ها و ارزیابی آنها بررسی شده و در ادامه با استفاده از مدل‌های آماری ناپارامتریک، توسعه اقتصادی- اجتماعی نواحی روستایی متاثر از شهر و تاثیر گذاری عوامل جغرافیایی مورد سنجش قرار گرفته است. با استفاده از مطالعات پیمایشی و نمونه گیری، 15 روستا و 300 خانوار در شهرستان قیروکارزین به عنوان جامعه نمونه بکار گرفته شده است. روش شناسی تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی است و طراحی شاخص­ها در مقوله اقتصادی- اجتماعی توسعه روستایی تنظیم شده است. با استفاده از مدل‌های آماری، همبستگی بین میزان ارتباط روستاهای پیرامونی با شهر قیر و توسعه اقتصادی- اجتماعی آنها سنجیده شد، که نتایج حاکی از وجود همبستگی بین میزان ارتباط روستاهای پیرامونی با شهر قیر در بسیاری از شاخص‌های توسعه اقتصادی و اجتماعی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Survey on Role of Small Towns in Rural Economic-Social Development (Case Study: Ghir-karzin region)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Hosseinabadi
  • M. Poortaheri
  • A. Mohit Sekeravani
چکیده [English]

  A Survey on Role of Small Towns in Rural Economic-Social Development (Case Study: Ghir-karzin region)     M. Hosseinabadi, M. Poortaheri, A. Mohit Sekeravani   Received: April 20, 2011/ Accepted: January 16, 2012, 29-32 P       Extended abstract   1- Introduction   Numerous researches have shown that small urban centers have a significant influence on hinterland rural district and agricultural development they offer a nearby market for agricultural products, offer job opportunities, provide a center for social services and help in the diffusion of news and information on products and services. Promoting market-oriented development strategies and their emphasis on the export of agricultural products of economic showed that links between agriculture and foreign markets are efficient. Accordingly, the growth of small towns in rural development planning process cannot be ignored. Small cities are competent regions for non-agricultural investment in order to reduce density and increase costs in big cities.      2- Theoretical bases   If adequate working conditions can be provided in small towns as well as big cities, these cities can control immigration flows. Development of small cities can be helpful in adsorbing the increasing part of labor that can not to be employed in agriculture section and thus plays an important role in employment of labors in developing countries. Criteria provided by the UN to recognize the small towns from other urban groups is the number of inhabitants less than 100000 in it, but in every country and regional conditions and requirements with regard to demographic, social and economic, this criterion is different. In the area under the focus of this study, twenty-five thousand population towns were considered as small towns.     3- Discussion   In the current study, we have analyzed the relationships between hinterland villages near the city of Ghir and their economical and social development. The geographical positioning of the villages was also taken into consideration. We have used statistical inference model in order to evaluate the indexes. 15 villages and 300 families in Ghir-Karzin Township were chosen as our case study. Numerous fieldtrip were made in order to collect the required data. The methodology used was descriptive-analytical and the choice of indexes was chosen according to the social-economical aspects of rural development.     4- Conclusion   We have used statistical model in order to determine the correlation between the relations of the villages and Ghir and the social-economical development. Using SPSS software, 16 indicators of quality were assessed by Spearman correlation coefficient and Pearson. Our study shows that for most indexes a correlation exists. Among the economic indicators, two indicators of job satisfaction and stability in relation to their calorie intake has been stable and for other indicators such as income, housing satisfaction, and the capital, household assets, household amenities, agricultural development a significant positive relationship was observed. The status of social indicators also show the relationship between the city and social development indicators the most meaningful relationship was positive and only for extroversion and social interaction, responsibility and sense of deprivation, no relation was observed.   These results indicate that the research literature that has emphasized the positive role and development of small cities is consistent with reality and at the local level. On the other hand, the role of rural relationship with the geographical factors is also assessed. Based on studies conducted, there has been a significant negative relationship between geographical factors such as remoteness and proximity to cities and typology of villages with the degree of connection to the city. In other words, the villages which are located at a closer distance have more relationship with the city and vice versa. In addition, a more careful analysis of the typology of the villages confirms this assumption in that rural mountain villages have less relationship with the City of Ghir.     5 – Suggestions   According to the results of this study and confirmation of the positive and developmental role of small towns, we offer the following suggestions:   Providing facilities in small towns for rural working population and unemployed can prevent migration of the rural unemployed to the metropolises.   Good access to rural services and shopping centers, especially in small towns.   Development of local markets emphasizing agricultural products in small towns.   Improvement of transport and communications infrastructure between rural areas and small towns.   Providing facilities and incentives to encourage private sector investment in small cities to invest in these cities       References   Acharya, J., (2004), Gendered Spaces. Craftswomen’s Stories of Self-Employment in Orissa, India, Ph.D Thesis, Trondheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).   Bajrachary, B., (2001), Small Twon and Rural Development: A Study of Urban-Rural Relations, the Hill Region of Nepal.   Bryceson, D.F., (2000), Peasant theories and smallholder policies: past and present in Bryceson, D.F. et al. (eds.): Disappearing Peasants? Rural Labour in Africa, Asia and Latin America, London: ITDG Publishing. pp. 1-36.   Clark, P., (2002), Small Towns in Early Modern Europe, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.   Courtney, P. and Errington, A., (2000), The role of small towns in the local economy and some implications for development policy, Local Economy, 15. pp. 280-301.   Courtney, Paul, (2007), Small towns as sub-poles in English rural development: Investigating rural–urban linkages using sub-regional social accounting matrices, Geoforum, 38, pp. 1219-1232.   Fanni, z., (2003), Small Towns: Another Approach in Regional Planning, State of Municipalities, Tehran.   Gaile, G.L., (1998), Improving rural-urban linkages through small town market-based development, Third World Planning Review, 14. pp. 131-147.   Hinderink, J. and Titus, M., (2002), Small towns and regional development: Major findings and policy implications from comparative research, Urban Studies, 39. pp. 379-391.   Karaska, G.J., (1999), The regional structures of Third World economies: Rural-urban dynamics in Kenya and Madagascar, Environment and Planning, 31. pp. 767-781.   Long, Hualou, (2011), Analysis of rural transformation development in China since the turn of the new millennium , Applied Geography, 31, pp. 1094-1105.   Lund, R., (2002), Methodological choices and dilemmas in contested places: Researching minorities and the displaced, Acta Geographica, Series A, 2. pp. 1-16.   Malekian Dolatabadi, Z., (2008), Small Towns and Analisis of their role in Rurals , Nouri, H, esfahan univesity, Dept of geography and rural planning.   Nouri, H., Hosseini Abri S.H., Khademi H . , (2009), The Role of Small Cities in the Equilibration of Rural Settlement System of Yazd Province , Geography and Development Spring, 7(13), Iran, pp: 61-77 .   Owusu, G., (2005), The role of District Capitals in regional development: Linking smalltowns, rural-urban linkages and decentralisation in Ghana, International Development Planning Review, 27. pp. 59-90.   Owusu, G., (2005b), The changing views on the role of small towns rural and regional development in Africa, in Green, A. and Leech, R. (eds.): Cities in the World, 1500-2000, London: SPMA/Maney Publications (forthcoming).   Rezvani, M. R., goli, A., Akbarian, R., (2007), The Role and Function of Small Towns on Rural Development Using Network Analysis Case Study: Roniz District (Estahban County),Geographical Research Quarterly Fall, 39(61), Iran, pp:45-58 .   Tacoli, C. (1998), Bridging the divide: Rural-urban interactions and livelihood strategies. London, IIED.   Tacoli, C., (2003), The links between urban and rural development’, in Environment and Urbanization, 15. pp. 3-12.   Wouden, A.A., (2003), Three small towns in Central Java, Netherlands Geographical Studies, 221.   Yankson, P.W.K., (2004), Decentralisation and poverty reduction: The role of District Assemblies in Ghana, A paper presented at a NUFU Workshop on Poverty, Health and Gender at the University of Ghana, Legon, 6-8 January.     

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • economical-social development
  • small town
  • economical
  • rural-urban relationship
  • Social Development
  • rural
  • urban relationship