برنامه‌ریزی فضایی به منظور مکان‌یابی بازارچه‌های صنایع‌دستی (مطالعه موردی استان خراسان جنوبی)

نویسندگان

چکیده

  چکیده   ا مروزه یکی از مسایل اساسی پیش روی مدیران و برنامه‌ریزان تخصیص منابع به نقاطی است که پتانسیل بازدهی سرمایه را دارند و منافع اقتصادی و اجتماعی برای جامعه به همراه دارند. این نقاط با استفاده از روش­های مکان­یابی که در واقع استعدادهای فضایی و غیر فضایی یک سرزمین را برای انتخاب مکان مناسب کاربری خاص، ارزیابی و تجزیه و تحلیل می‌کنند، انتخاب می­شوند. مکان‌یابی مناسب وقتی صورت می‌پذیرد که یک ارزیابی دقیق، همگون و سریع از جذابیت مکان‌های مختلف برای کاربری مورد نظر وجود داشته باشد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر انتخاب مکان بهینه برای ایجاد بازارچه­های صنایع دستی در استان خراسان جنوبی است که با استفاده از روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی و به کمک نرم افزار Expert choice به انجام رسیده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان دهنده آن است که ایجاد چنین بازارچه­هایی در مراکز این شهرستان­ها، از ابعاد مختلف اقتصادی، به علت دو مقوله مهم کارایی و اثربخشی، مقرون به صرفه­تر است. در این میان با توجه به نتایج حاصله شهرستان بیرجند و به تبع آن شهر بیرجند بیشترین پتانسیل برای استقرار این بازارچه­ها را دارا است. و برای استقرار بازارچه­ها در سطح شهر بیرجند به ترتیب: قلعه بیرجند، ارگ کلاه فرنگی و باغ شوکت آباد پیشنهاد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Site selection for Handy Craft Market in South Khorasan Province Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kh. Kalantari
  • Sh. Choobchian
  • M. Karami
چکیده [English]

  Site selection for Handy Craft Market in South Khorasan Province Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)       M . Karami, Sh. Choobchian, Kh. Kalantari   Received: September 28, 2011/ Accepted: February 12, 2012, 5-10 P      Extended abstract   1-Introduction   Today, one of the essential issues facing managers and planners is allocating resources to the spots which have the potentials to reserve the capital and provide the society with social and economic interests. In addition, finding a suitable spot has been the main concern of managers and planners, i.e. managers and planners, because of the resource deficiency, prefer to allocate the resources to the best places. In this regard, planners since a long time ago have tried to find out methods of choosing the best spot to centralize the industries and activities.   Finding a scientific location finding method has always been a main concern of the planners . In this regard, selecting effective criteria in choosing the best spot and using suitable models to modulate data are considered as significant. In the paper, using modern methods of spotting (Hierarchical Analysis) and taking economic, social aspects into account, some spots to establish markets for handicrafts in South Khorasan Province were suggested.     2- Theoretical bases   Simultaneously with the development of industry and its social and economic aftermaths, spotting theories to increase productivity of industrial activities and decrease their negative results and economic losses were offered. The theories have been proposed by thinkers such as: August Losch, A. Weber, Walter Isard, Greenhut, Smith, Palander, Lanhard, Christaler and Micheal Rawstron.   Affected by the systemic approaches to the late 1970s issues, spotting theories had a try at concurrent modulation of two previous theories. In this approach activities and industries must be located in a way that it generates the difference between costs and incomes (profit) as large as possible for the economic managers.   The AHP method, as one of the most modern methods of spotting industry, made the proposed statement so easy by changing attitude, not very unexpectedly, so that it can be certainly used as the most efficient and unmistakable method (Fernandez, 2009).     3– Discussion   The process of selecting optimal spots to locate the handicrafts market in South Khorasan Province   The first stage in locating markets of handicrafts in South Khorasan Province includes establishing hierarchy, weighting and selecting, which is described as follow:   Establishing hierarchy   Creating a graphic display is the first stage in the process of hierarchical analysis, in which, the objectives, criteria and options are showed (Ramanathan, 2001). Figure 1 shows hierarchical choices of suitable townships in order of priority for locating handicraft markets over the province. The criteria include:   Criterion 1: employees of handicraft industry and its condition   Criterion 2: enjoying tourism and cultural relics to locate the market   Criterion 3: general condition of employment in the province   Criterion 4: population and the number of rural and urban spots   Criterion 5: enjoying surface structures (education centers, schools, health centers and etc.)   Criterion 6: condition of the number of the incomer tourists of the township   Criterion 7: Having Airport   Criterion 8: Networks and routes   Criterion 9: Enjoying border market and customs   Criterion 10: industrial prosperity     Table1. Binary comparison of the criteria and indicating their priority   Criterion priority   Geometric mean   10   9   8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Criterion   0/29   3/8   7   3   6   6   2   7   6   5   2     1   0/18   2/29   4   2   3   3   1   4   3   3       2   0/07   0/84   2   2   1   1   1/3   2   1         3   0/05   0/63   1   1/2   1   1   1/3   1           4   0/04   0/56   1   1/2   1   1   1/3             5   0/15   1/99   4   2   3   3               6   0/05   0/63   1   1/2   1                 7   0/05   0/63   1   1/2                   8   0/08   0/03   2                     9   0/29   0/54                       10     Table 2. Indicating final priority of the townships to establish markets for handicraft   Industry in the province   Township criterion   1th criterion   2th criterion   3th criterion   4th criterion   5th criterion   6th criterion   7th criterion   8th criterion   9th criterion   10th criterion   Importance rate   Final priority   Birjand   0/149   0/077   0/036   0/026   0/02   0/064   0/03   0/006   0/035   0/019   0/64   45/7   Gayenat   0/06   0/032   0/014   0/011   0/009   0/027   0/003   0/014   0/021   0/007   0/2   19/7   Ferdos   0/031   0/032   0/007   0/005   0/004   0/027   0/003   0/006   0/003   0/003   0/12   2/12   Sarayan   0/013   0/005   0/003   0/002   0/002   0/004   0/003   0/001   0/003   0/003   0/04   3/8   Sarbisheh   0/013   0/009   0/003   0/002   0/002   0/007   0/032   0/003   0/003   0/003   0/05   4/8   Nahbandan   0/013   0/009   0/003   0/005   0/002   0/007   0/003   0/019   0/012   0/003   0/08   7/5   Drmian   0/013   0/17   0/003   0/005   0/002   0/014   0/003   0/001   0/003   0/003   0/06   6/4       4– Conclusion   Studies indicated that firstly, regarding the abovementioned components as well as efficiency and effectiveness as the two important components, these markets in the townships are more economical and can facilitate its development. This is due to a     great part of the tourism attractions and the necessary facilities which were located in the townships. Secondly, according to table 2 Birjand enjoys a higher importance rate than the other spots of the Province. In this regard, based on the results of the mentioned indicators and the in-depth interviews conducted with the experts of Tourism, Cultural heritage and Handicrafts of the Province and other related experts, three spots were suggested to locate markets for handicraft industry in Birjand, which are mentioned below.     5– Suggestions   Based on the results of the hierarchical analysis, three sites are suggested to establish markets in Birjand, which follow in order of priority:   First priority: Birjand Castle   Second priority: Akbariyeh Garden   Third priority: The market located at Modarres Street.   Keywords: Tourism, Markets for handicraft industry, Hierarchical analysis, South Khorasan Province           3   1   2   Figure1. Suggested options in order of priority to establish markets in Birjand     References   Abedindarkoosh, (2006), Introduction to Urban Economics, University Publishing Center, Seventh Edition, Tehran, 221.   Aftabi, (2003), Locate in urban markets (the case of Rasht), Azita Rajabi, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Department of Art and Architecture.   Comprehensive study of the Iranian handicrafts, (2007), host of Tehran University, Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization (Handicrafts), Education, Tehran.   Fernandez, I. and Ruiz, M. C, (2009), “Descriptive model and evaluation system to locate sustainable industrial areas.” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 17, PP. 87-100.   Ghodsipoor, Seyed Hassan, (2010), Analytical Hierarchy Process, Amirkabir University (Polytechnic), Eighth Edition, Tehran, 220.   Kalantari, Khalil, (2009), Planning and Regional Development, Khoshbin, third Edition, Tehran, 288.   Ministry of Economy, (1972), marketing crafts / translation and regulation, the Ministry of Economy, Handicraft Center, Tehran.   Omkarprasad, V. and K. Sushil, (2004), Analytic hierarchy process: An overview of applications, April.   Ramanathan, R, (2001), A note on the use of the analytic hierarchy process for environmental impact assessment, Journal of Environmental Management, 27–35, doi:10.1006/jema.2001.0455, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com   Sepehr, Nosratolah, (2009), Ancient crafts, Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism, Office of Public Relations, Social and Cultural Affairs - Office of Planning Publication, Tehran, 200.   Tourism Master Plan in South Khorasan province, (2006), Consulting Engineers Sabz andish payesh, Institute of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism of South Khorasan province, Tehran.   Yoam Wind, Thomas L.Saaty, (1980), Marketing applications of the analytic hierarchy process, management science, Vol, 26, No, 7, U.S.A                                                                   Site selection for Handy Craft Market in South Khorasan Province Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)       M . Karami, Sh. Choobchian, Kh. Kalantari   Received: September 28, 2011/ Accepted: February 12, 2012, 5-10 P           Extended abstract   1-Introduction   Today, one of the essential issues facing managers and planners is allocating resources to the spots which have the potentials to reserve the capital and provide the society with social and economic interests. In addition, finding a suitable spot has been the main concern of managers and planners, i.e. managers and planners, because of the resource deficiency, prefer to allocate the resources to the best places. In this regard, planners since a long time ago have tried to find out methods of choosing the best spot to centralize the industries and activities.     Author (s)       M . Karami ( * )   MA. student in regional development planning, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran   e-mail: Karami2888@yahoo.com     Sh. Choobchian   PhD student in Agricultural Development, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran   Kh. Kalantari   Professor of Agricultural Development, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran             Finding a scientific location finding method has always been a main concern of the planners . In this regard, selecting effective criteria in choosing the best spot and using suitable models to modulate data are considered as significant. In the paper, using modern methods of spotting (Hierarchical Analysis) and taking economic, social aspects into account, some spots to establish markets for handicrafts in South Khorasan Province were suggested.     2- Theoretical bases   Simultaneously with the development of industry and its social and economic aftermaths, spotting theories to increase productivity of industrial activities and decrease their negative results and economic losses were offered. The theories have been proposed by thinkers such as: August Losch, A. Weber, Walter Isard, Greenhut, Smith, Palander, Lanhard, Christaler and Micheal Rawstron.   Affected by the systemic approaches to the late 1970s issues, spotting theories had a try at concurrent modulation of two previous theories. In this approach activities and industries must be located in a way that it generates the difference between costs and incomes (profit) as large as possible for the economic managers.   The AHP method, as one of the most modern methods of spotting industry, made the proposed statement so easy by changing attitude, not very unexpectedly, so that it can be certainly used as the most efficient and unmistakable method (Fernandez, 2009).     3– Discussion   The process of selecting optimal spots to locate the handicrafts market in South Khorasan Province   The first stage in locating markets of handicrafts in South Khorasan Province includes establishing hierarchy, weighting and selecting, which is described as follow:   Establishing hierarchy   Creating a graphic display is the first stage in the process of hierarchical analysis, in which, the objectives, criteria and options are showed (Ramanathan, 2001). Figure 1 shows hierarchical choices of suitable townships in order of priority for locating handicraft markets over the province. The criteria include:   Criterion 1: employees of handicraft industry and its condition   Criterion 2: enjoying tourism and cultural relics to locate the market   Criterion 3: general condition of employment in the province   Criterion 4: population and the number of rural and urban spots   Criterion 5: enjoying surface structures (education centers, schools, health centers and etc.)   Criterion 6: condition of the number of the incomer tourists of the township   Criterion 7: Having Airport   Criterion 8: Networks and routes   Criterion 9: Enjoying border market and customs   Criterion 10: industrial prosperity     Table1. Binary comparison of the criteria and indicating their priority   Criterion priority   Geometric mean   10   9   8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   Criterion   0/29   3/8   7   3   6   6   2   7   6   5   2     1   0/18   2/29   4   2   3   3   1   4   3   3       2   0/07   0/84   2   2   1   1   1/3   2   1         3   0/05   0/63   1   1/2   1   1   1/3   1           4   0/04   0/56   1   1/2   1   1   1/3             5   0/15   1/99   4   2   3   3               6   0/05   0/63   1   1/2   1                 7   0/05   0/63   1   1/2                   8   0/08   0/03   2                     9   0/29   0/54                       10     Table 2. Indicating final priority of the townships to establish markets for handicraft   Industry in the province   Township criterion   1th criterion   2th criterion   3th criterion   4th criterion   5th criterion   6th criterion   7th criterion   8th criterion   9th criterion   10th criterion   Importance rate   Final priority   Birjand   0/149   0/077   0/036   0/026   0/02   0/064   0/03   0/006   0/035   0/019   0/64   45/7   Gayenat   0/06   0/032   0/014   0/011   0/009   0/027   0/003   0/014   0/021   0/007   0/2   19/7   Ferdos   0/031   0/032   0/007   0/005   0/004   0/027   0/003   0/006   0/003   0/003   0/12   2/12   Sarayan   0/013   0/005   0/003   0/002   0/002   0/004   0/003   0/001   0/003   0/003   0/04   3/8   Sarbisheh   0/013   0/009   0/003   0/002   0/002   0/007   0/032   0/003   0/003   0/003   0/05   4/8   Nahbandan   0/013   0/009   0/003   0/005   0/002   0/007   0/003   0/019   0/012   0/003   0/08   7/5   Drmian   0/013   0/17   0/003   0/005   0/002   0/014   0/003   0/001   0/003   0/003   0/06   6/4       4– Conclusion   Studies indicated that firstly, regarding the abovementioned components as well as efficiency and effectiveness as the two important components, these markets in the townships are more economical and can facilitate its development. This is due to a     great part of the tourism attractions and the necessary facilities which were located in the townships. Secondly, according to table 2 Birjand enjoys a higher importance rate than the other spots of the Province. In this regard, based on the results of the mentioned indicators and the in-depth interviews conducted with the experts of Tourism, Cultural heritage and Handicrafts of the Province and other related experts, three spots were suggested to locate markets for handicraft industry in Birjand, which are mentioned below.     5– Suggestions   Based on the results of the hierarchical analysis, three sites are suggested to establish markets in Birjand, which follow in order of priority:   First priority: Birjand Castle   Second priority: Akbariyeh Garden   Third priority: The market located at Modarres Street.   Keywords: Tourism, Markets for handicraft industry, Hierarchical analysis, South Khorasan Province           3   1   2   Figure1. Suggested options in order of priority to establish markets in Birjand     References   Abedindarkoosh, (2006), Introduction to Urban Economics, University Publishing Center, Seventh Edition, Tehran, 221.   Aftabi, (2003), Locate in urban markets (the case of Rasht), Azita Rajabi, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Department of Art and Architecture.   Comprehensive study of the Iranian handicrafts, (2007), host of Tehran University, Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization (Handicrafts), Education, Tehran.   Fernandez, I. and Ruiz, M. C, (2009), “Descriptive model and evaluation system to locate sustainable industrial areas.” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 17, PP. 87-100.   Ghodsipoor, Seyed Hassan, (2010), Analytical Hierarchy Process, Amirkabir University (Polytechnic), Eighth Edition, Tehran, 220.   Kalantari, Khalil, (2009), Planning and Regional Development, Khoshbin, third Edition, Tehran, 288.   Ministry of Economy, (1972), marketing crafts / translation and regulation, the Ministry of Economy, Handicraft Center, Tehran.   Omkarprasad, V. and K. Sushil, (2004), Analytic hierarchy process: An overview of applications, April.   Ramanathan, R, (2001), A note on the use of the analytic hierarchy process for environmental impact assessment, Journal of Environmental Management, 27–35, doi:10.1006/jema.2001.0455, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com   Sepehr, Nosratolah, (2009), Ancient crafts, Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism, Office of Public Relations, Social and Cultural Affairs - Office of Planning Publication, Tehran, 200.   Tourism Master Plan in South Khorasan province, (2006), Consulting Engineers Sabz andish payesh, Institute of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism of South Khorasan province, Tehran.   Yoam Wind, Thomas L.Saaty, (1980), Marketing applications of the analytic hierarchy process, management science, Vol, 26, No, 7, U.S.A                                                                

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Tourism
  • Markets for handicraft industry
  • hierarchical analysis
  • South Khorasan Province