سطح‌بندی و تحلیل شاخص‌های مسکن روستایی استان اصفهان با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی و خوشه‌ای

نویسندگان

چکیده

  وضعیت مطلوب مسکن در نواحی شهری و روستایی یکی از شاخص­های توسعه اقتصادی اجتماعی در کشورهای جهان محسوب می­شود. تدوین یک برنامه جامع در بخش مسکن به منظور دستیابی به وضعیت مطلوب مستلزم شناسایی و تجزیه و تحلیل ابعاد گسترده این بخش است. از راه‌های مهم آگاهی از وضعیت مسکن در فرایند برنامه‌ریزی­های منطقه­ای، استفاده از شاخص­های مسکن است. این شاخص­ها که نشان دهنده وضعیت کمی و کیفی مساکن در هر مقطع زمانی است راهنمایی موثر برای بهبود برنامه­ریزی مسکن آینده است. پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از شاخص­های مسکن به بررسی وضعیت مسکن مناطق روستایی شهرستان­های استان اصفهان و سطح­بندی نواحی روستایی آن با استفاده از این شاخص­ها پرداخته است. روش تحقیق مبتنی بر روش اسنادی، توصیفی و همبستگی است و اطلاعات مورد نیاز از نتایج سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن سال 1385 استان اصفهان استخراج شده است که از میان 52 متغیر مربوط به مسکن، 18 شاخص استخراج شده و مناسب بودن آنها از طریق آزمون KMO ارزیابی شده است. شاخص­های انتخابی با روش تحلیل عاملی به 5 عامل تقلیل یافت که این عوامل جمعا 249/86 درصد واریانس را در بر می­گیرند. در بین 5 عامل فوق، عامل زیربنایی به تنهایی 414/26 درصد واریانس را پوشش می­دهد که تاثیر گذار­ترین عامل در مطالعه است. به منظور سطح­بندی نواحی همگن روستایی از روش تحلیل خوشه­ای استفاده و نقاط روستایی استان به 7 گروه همگن طبقه­بندی شده­اند که بر اساس آن مناطق روستایی شهرستان اصفهان در بالاترین سطح و مناطق روستایی شهرستانهای نجف‌آباد، تیران و کرون، نطنز، کاشان، خوانسار، آران و بیدگل، گلپایگان و سمیرم سفلی در پایین­ترین سطح از نظر برخورداری از شاخص­های مسکن قرار دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Stratification and analysis of housing indicators of rural areas of Isfahan province using factor and cluster analyses

نویسندگان [English]

  • E. Fathi
  • Z. Hedayati Moghaddam
  • S. E. Seidaiy
  • M. Jamshidi
  • A. Jamshidi
چکیده [English]

  Stratification and analysis of housing indicators of rural areas of Isfahan province using factor and cluster analyses       S. E . Seidaiy, Z. Hedayati Moghaddam, E. Fathi, M. Jamshidi, A. Jamshidi   Received: August 28, 2011 / Accepted: April 10, 2012, 11-16 P           Extended abstract   1-Introduction   Nowadays housing and its related issues are considered as a global issue and planners and policy makers in different countries are trying to solve its problems (Buckley, et al., 2005:237). Among different factors involved in rural settlement structures housing is one of the most important ones (Sartipipor, 2010:125). In Iran, the issue of rural housing, on different aspects, has been affected by urban housing. Despite the efforts made to improve it, and giving priority to it in rural development programs,   Author (s)       S. E . Seidaiy ( * )   Assistant Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran   e-mail: s.seidaiy@geo.ui.ac.ir       Z. Hedayati Moghaddam   PhD Student in Geography and Rural Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran     E. Fathi   PhD Student in Geography and Rural Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran     M. Jamshidi   PhD Student in Geography and Rural Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran     A. Jamshidi   PhD Student in Geography and Rural Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran       housing provision has always been one of the problems of many people, especially low-income families in rural areas.   Non-availability of suitable and standard housing, which is an index of rural development, causes psychological and social damage in rural people's lives, interruption and irregularity in rural housing structures, and ultimately social and economic crises in national level. Therefore, the issue of appropriate planning and policy making for housing and access to a desirable model for rural residents is a major concern of rural planners (Lotfi, 2010:105). One of the important ways of having knowledge of rural condition in the process of rural planning is the use of rural housing indicators (Azizi, 2006:26).     2- Theoretical bases   Rural housing is a coordinated structure consistent with economic, social and cultural structure of rural area that has essential differences with urban housing. In fact, the expectations of two urban and rural societies from housing are not the same. In cities, nowadays, houses mostly have the role of dormitory or resort, while in rural areas people expect more from the housing. For a rural person, housing, besides being a resort unit, is also considered as an economic functional unit (Papoliyazdi, 1994:490). Based on the policies enforced and the amount of government intervention in the housing issue, there are two distinct lines of thought among housing scholars and researchers: market economy and planned economy. In view of market economy, housing problems are solved through the market mechanisms and housing needs are provided by private sector (Chadwick, 1987:88, Ziyari, et al., 210:4). In planned economy government has the role of planner, designer and manager (Aghasi, 1996:201, Chadwick, 1987:88, Shucksmith, 2003:213). In Islam's ideological system the importance of housing is as far as that the housing provision is considered as one of the bases of economic independency, and eradication of poverty in the society.     3– Discussion   To evaluate and analyze the housing indicators in the rural areas of Isfahan province, first data and the related variables are collected and based on them the desired indicators are obtained (Table-1) then, in line with goals of research, we will go through the following steps:   Analysis of housing situation in rural areas of Isfahan province by using housing indicators,   Determining effective factors in improving housing indicators,   And stratification of rural areas based on these indicators.   Applying statistical techniques (factor analysis and cluster analysis), analysis of indicators and prioritization of rural areas of the province are performed.     Table 1: Housing Indicators   ROW   indicators   ROW   indicators   1   The population of rural areas   12   The average of infrastructure lifetime   2   The number of households   13   The share of households that have a minimum electricity   4   The family size   14   The share of households that have a minimum telephone   4   The number of residential units,   15   The share of households that have a minimum water piping   5   The household density in residential units   16   The share of households that have a minimum gas piping   6   The density of people in residential units   17   The share of households that have a minimum central heating and cooling system   7   The housing shortages   18   The share of households that have a minimum kitchen   8   The average of number of rooms in the household   19   The share of households that have a minimum bathroom   9   The average of number of rooms per household member   20   The share of residential units from durable materials   10   The share of owner households to percentage   21   The share of residential units from semi-durable materials   11   The share of tenant households to percentage   22   The share of residential units of less durable materials           4– Conclusion   According to the research objectives, in the first phase, of the 52 variables related to housing, 22 indicators were extracted. Before conducting factor analysis, the suitability of data set for this analysis was evaluated through KOM [1] and BTS [2] tests. At the end 18 indicators were used in the calculations. Selected indicators reduced to 5 through the factor analysis and the total variance accounted for by these indicators is 86.249%. Among these 5 factors, one named fundamental factor with 26.314% variance alone is the most influential factor in this study. In order to classify homogeneous rural areas, cluster analysis has been used, by which, the rural areas of the province were classified into seven homogeneous groups based on which, the rural areas of the city of Isfahan have the highest level and Najaf Abad, Tyran-Va-Karvn, Natanz, Kashan, Khansar, Aran-Va-Bydgl, Golpayegan and Semirom Sofla have the lowest level of housing indicators.     5– Suggestions   Considering the importance of housing issue, to achieve the desired situation and eliminate the heterogeneity, it is necessary that lower level areas be given higher priority. Also considering the reality of different climatic conditions in different areas of the province, areas in each homogeneous group have not necessarily the same natural environment therefore, it is necessary to provide suitable model for each area so that effective and practical planning towards improvement of housing situation be achieved.   Key words: factor analysis, cluster analysis, housing indicators, rural areas of Isfahan province   References   Aghasi, R., (1994), "Geographical analysis of housing", collection of articles of the Seminar on Development of Housing in Iran, Vol.1, National organization land – housing, Tehran.   Ahari, Z., et al., (1989), "Minimum Housing", Housing and building research center, Ministry of Roads and Urban Development.   Akbari,N.,Zahedi keyvan,M.,(2009),"Application of MADM ranking methods" publications, organizations and municipalities Dhyaryhay country, Tehran.   Alalhesabi, M., (2009)," Design for rural, challenges and opportunities", Conference housing development policy in Iran, Ministry of Roads and Urban Development.   Arabiebalghi, n., (2008)," A comparative study of housing indicators changes during the decade of (1996-2006)", Journal of Housing Economies, N.40, summer 2008.   Arnott, R., (2008), "Housing Policy in Developing. Countries: The Importance of the Informal Economy", world Bank Commission on Growth and Development.   Athari, K., (1993), "Economic housing in different urban areas in Iran", Ministry of Roads and Urban Development, Department of Housing.   Azizi, MM, (2006), “Housing indicators status in housing planning process", Journal Honarhaye – ziba, n.17.   Bastieh, J., & Drez, B., (1999), "City", Translated by, Ashrafi, A., Publications of university of Art and Design, Tehran.   Buckley,R.,& Jerry,K.,(2005)," Housing Policy in Developing Countries: Conjectures and Refutations" ,World Bank Res Obs (Fall 2005), 233-257.   Chadwick, G., (1987),"Models of Urban Regional system in Developing Countries", pergamon pres.   Delawar, A., (2006)," Theoretical and practical base of research in the humanities and social sciences,” Publications Roshd, Tehran.   Eabadi, HG, Riyazi, J.,(2011), " Testing using factor analysis", Publications Kerdar,Tehran   Farshadfar, e., (2006), “Principles and methods of multivariate analysis”, publisher, Bostan, Kermanshah.   Gallent,N.,& Steve, R. ,(2011)," Local perspectives on rural housing affordability and implications for the localism agenda in England", Journal of Rural Studies , Volume 27, Pages 297-307, Available online July 20.   Ghasemi Ardehayy, A., Seyfolahie,F.,(2009),"The affect of rural housing mortgage in rural 's people rural livelihoods ", Conference housing development policy in Iran, inistry of Roads and Urban Developmen 11.   Habib, F.,(2005)," A re-review of housing" Journal of Housing Reasearch, No. 106.   Hekmatniya, H., Mirnajaf Mousavi,& zarafshan, A., (2006)," Study and analysis of housing qualitative and qualitative indicators in Taft city and it"s future plans", Jourmal of Geography and Regional Development, Fall & Winter 1384, N.5.   Kalantari, K., (2011)," Data processing and analysis in socio- economic researches", Publisher, Farhang Saba, Tehran, Firth Edition.   Kaplunovsky, A., (2005),"Factor analysis in environmental studies", Journal of Science and Engineering B, Vol 2, Issues 1-2, pp. 54- 94.   Kline, p., (1994),"An easy guide to factor analysis", first published by Routledge, London. -   Lotfi, H., Ahmadi, A., Hasain zadeh Frijuod, d., (2010), "necessary Indicators and components of planning and policymaking in rural housing in Iran", Journal of Landaus Environment, winter 1388, n.7, pp105-128.   Ministry of education, (2010), "The Geography of Isfahan Province", Office of planning and compiling text books.   Momeni, M., (2008), "Statistical analysis useing SPSS software publication Ketabe No, Tehran.   Nastaran, M., Fatehi, S., (2009)," Classification of city of Golestan province base on developed indicator using Factor analysis Method", Journal of Geography and Environmental Studies, fall (2009), N.1, pp43-55.   Papoliyazdi, M.H., & Vosoghikgazai, F.,(1994)," Zoning of Khorasan Province in Terms of Build Housing Policy", collection of articles of the Seminar on Development of Housing in Iran.   Piraste, A, & Heydarneya, A., R., (2008),"Exploratory factor analysis of psychosocial factors questionnaire affecting physical activity among Iranian teenage girls", Journal of Medical Council of Islamic Republic of Iran, Volume 26, Number 4.   Planning Deputy Governor Isfahan, (2008)," Comparative analysis of the census of population and housing", During 1996 - 2006,( Isfahan province) ,Isfahan Governor.   Pourmohammadi,MR.,(1994)," Housing Planning, systematic programming approach", collection of articles of the Seminar on Development of Housing in Iran, Ministry of Roads and Urban Development.   Sartipipoor, M., (2005)," Rural housing Architecture indicators in Iran", Journal of Honarhaye – ziba, summer 2005, N.22, PP43-52.   Sartipipoor, M., (2006)," Rural housing in development programs" Journal of Honarhaye – ziba, Fall 2006, N.27,pp47-56.   Sartipipoor, M.,(2008)," Assessment and analysis of characteristics of rural housing in Iran ", Conference housing development policy in Iran, Ministry of Roads and Urban Development.   Sartipipoor, M., (2010)," Evaluation and analysis of rural housing in Sistan and Balochestan Province and suggestion for future direction", Geograopy of Journal Community, N.8, winter 2010.   Seydai, S. S., Kiyani, S., Soltani, Z., (2010)," Spatial analysis of rural housing condition in Kohgiloye and Boyerahmad province", Journal of Rural Studies, Summer 2010, n.2,pp 49-72.   Shucksmith, M& Lynn, W., (2003),"Housebuilding on farmland: the distributional effects in rural areas", Department of Land Economy, University of Aberdeen, U.K.   Statistical Center of Iran, (2006), General census of population and housing.   Statistical Center of Iran, (2006), General census of population and housing in Isfahan.   Taghvaie, M., & Shafiei, P., (2009)," Application of factor and cluster analysis in assessment the spatial location of rural areas in Isfahan Province", Journal of Development and Agricultural, N. 68.   Ziyari, K.,Parhiz, F., Mahdinejad, H., Ashtari,H.,(2010)," Assessment of income people housing and ranking housing privision program for low- income groups", (Case study: Lorestan Province),Journal of Researches in human geography,N.74, Winter 2010,N.74,pp1-21 University of Tehran.                                                                                 [1] Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin   [2] Bartlett Test

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: factor analysis
  • Cluster analysis
  • housing indicators
  • rural areas of Isfahan province