تحلیل وضعیت اقتصادی، اجتماعی و کالبدی محله‌های حاشیه نشین شهر اهر

نویسندگان

چکیده

  حاشیه نشینی همواره در طول چند دهه اخیر چالش اصلی شهرها بوده است و بعد از تجربیات مختلف برخورد قهری، آنچه که اکنون توسط سازمان‌های بین المللی توصیه شده، رویکرد توانمندسازی است که به جای حمایت‌های مالی، بر توانمندسازی حاشیه نشینان با تاکید بر ماهیّت درونزایی حل مشکل استوار شده است. روش این تحقیق اسنادی و پیمایشی است و با هدف تحلیل کلی از وضعیت اقتصادی، اجتماعی و کالبدی محلات حاشیه نشین شهر اهر و تلاش برای ارائه راهکارهایی برای ساماندهی آنها است. در این تحقیق حاشیه نشینان شهر اهر به عنوان محدوده پژوهش در 4 محلّه اصلی شناسایی و بررسی شده‌اند. حجم نمونه از طریق رابطه کوکران به تعداد 320 نمونه تصادفی مشخص شده و ویژگی‌های اقتصادی، اجتماعی، کالبدی و فضایی محلات مذکور به وسیله پرسشنامه گردآوری و با نرم ا ف زار SPSS تحلیل شده است. همچنین با استفاده از رویکرد SWOT ضمن شناسایی مشکلات، راهکارهای توانمندسازی در ابعاد مختلف کالبدی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی ارائه شده است. نتایج نشان دهنده آن است که بیش از 90 درصد ساکنان محله­های حاشیه­نشین از روستاهای اطراف شهرستان اهر به این محلات مهاجرت کرده­اند که در شله­بران این رقم نزدیک به 95 درصد است. همچنین بیش از 80 درصد مهاجرت‌ها به صورت خانواری است و مهاجرت انفرادی کمتر از 20 درصد است. از نظر شغلی نیز به طور متوسط 45 درصد ساکنان کارگر هستند که متوسط درآمد آنها بین 150-100 هزار تومان است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد محلا ت شله­بران و نیروگاه از وضعیّت اجتماعی، اقتصادی و کالبدی محرومتری برخوردار بوده و محلّه چلب وردی نسبت به سایر محلّات از وضعیّت مناسبی برخوردار است. مشکل مالکیت، وضعیت نامناسب مسکن، سیستم دفع فاضلاب و دسترسی‌ها از جمله مشکلات جدی ساکنان است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An analysis of Socio-economic and physical aspects of Slum areas in Ahar city

نویسندگان [English]

  • J. Poorfathi
  • N. Zali
چکیده [English]

  An analysis of Socio-economic and physical aspects of Slum areas in Ahar city       N. Zali, J. Poorfathi   Received: April 14, 2011 / Accepted: November 13, 2011, 25-28 P       Extended abstract   1-Introduction   Over the last few decades, urban marginalization has been a major challenge in the metropolitan and large cities. After various experiences of forcible contact , what is recommended by international organizations is an empowerment approach which focuses on the empowerment of squatters instead of financial support. In this study, Ahar squatters were identified and investigated in 4 neighborhoods. Using Cochran formula, 320 samples were chosen randomly and their economic, social, physical and spatial characteristics of neighborhoods were collected by questionnaires and then analyzed by SPSS software. Besides, using SWOT approach and identifying problems, strategies of   Empowerment in different dimensions was presented. Results showed that Shileboran and Nirugah neighborhoods have more problems regarding socio-economic and physical status, whereas Chalabverdi neighborhood has better situation than other neighborhoods. Ownership issue, poor housing conditions, access problems and poor sewage system were serious problems for residents of these neighborhoods.     2- Theoretical bases   In the second decades of 1980s, empowerment strategies along with improvement in informal habitat settings are recommended to overlook the poor economic condition of families and also the inability to use the collective power. Therefore, a great leap was created in modern approach which is based on the improvement of local communities and macro policies. The entity of the empowerment approach is based on the reduction of poverty and in human-oriented sustainable development it is based on the citizen participation.     3– Discussion   The problem of informal settlements in Ahar city because of its geographical location as a city in northeast of Azerbaijan province and its situation in the middle of bundles of small and big villages has been accelerated to the extent that solving the problem has been a real challenge. Investigation of the situation of these districts shows that economic, social and physical situation of these districts aren’t in a good condition. Due to poor sanitary condition and free flow of sewages, keeping animals in some residential units, the possibility of infectious diseases and their development to other parts of the city are increasing.     4– Conclusion   The results show that more than 90% of the residents of these neighborhoods immigrated from near villages which in Shileh-boran involves nearly 95% of residents. Furthermore, more than 80% of the immigrations are of familial form and individual immigration is rare in these areas. Considering the occupational status of these immigrants, 45% are workers with the average salary of 100-150 thousands tomans. In addition, results show that Shileh-boran and Nirougah neighborhoods have poorer economic, social and physical conditions. The problems of ownership, poor housing situation, sewage system and access can be regarded as the important problems in these areas.   The analysis of the results of the SWOT show that despite the serious threats and fundamental weaknesses such as high percentage of workers in primary jobs, hidden and seasonal unemployment, high dependency ratio, limited role of women in economy of the family, poor intensity, lack of financial facilities in improving neighborhoods, disorder of streets margin space, lack of balance in void and solid spaces, narrow passages, compression of texture, inefficiency of network access, weak and inappropriate studding, facade and form, low educated ratio, migration of majority of residents, bad sanitary condition, high rate of crime between young people, there are some opportunities for empowerment of the residents and improvement in neighborhood. These opportunities can be the inclination of the municipality in improving neighborhood, government's attention to organizing the informal habitat, international aids for empowerment activities, the existence of the sense of public participation of the residents for improvement and support of the government in creating local loan boxes, can be one of the solutions for neighborhoods problems.   Key words: Slum dwelling, informal settlements, Ahar, empowerment     References   Akhter, Ali Mohammad and kavita toran, (2000), Migration-slums and urban squatter at www. Yorku.ca/bunchmi/ICEH   Asian Development Bank (2010), access to justice for the urban poor toward inclusive cities.   Bighdeli, Davood, (2004), Organization of informal settlement, case study: Fatemie Avenue in zanjan, M.S Thesis in Geography and urban planning, university of Zanjan   Castells, M. (1996), the information age economy, society and culture, Blackwell press   Fanni, Z. (2006), Cities and urbanization in Iran after Islamic revolution, available at: www.elsevier.com/locate/cities   Francois, l. J. (1999), the postmodern condition a report on knowledge, Minnesota university press.   Friedmann, J. (1992), the politics of alternative development, Cambridge, Blackwell.   Haj Yousefi, Ali, (2002), marginalization and urban transformation processes, Journal of haft-shahr, Housing and Urban Development, third year, N.8, Tehran,   Haj Yousefi, Ali, (2003), marginalized and informal settlements, Conference Proceedings, University of Tehran, Volume II   Kamanrudy, Musa, (1998), informal settlement in Tehran, organizing in the 6th district of Tehran, M.S thesis, geography and urban planning, shahid Beheshti University .   Khatam, Azam, (2002). People share, government share, improvements in the neighborhood, journal of Haft-shahr, third year, N. 9 - 10, Tehran,   Khzrayy, Farzin, (2002), empowering the informal settlement: the experience of Zahedan,Journal of Haft-shahr, third year, N 9-10, Tehran   Luvc, Z. (2007), SWOT methodology and regional planning, available at: www.Zrc-sazu.si/lgs/SWOT.   Narayan, D. (2002), Empowerment and Poverty reduction a source book, the World Bank press.   Pal, A.(2008), political space for the civil society: the work of two community- based organization in Kolkata, Habitat international, No.32.pp,424- 436   Piran, Parviz, (1994), slums in Iran: An overview of theoretical perspectives with Iran, Political and economical Journal, Vol 9, Number 3 and 4, Tehran .   Piran, Parviz, (1995), slums in Iran: The final part, Political and economical Journal, Vol 9, No. 5-6, Tehran .   PourMohammadi, Mohammadreza, (2000), Housing planning, First printing, Tehran, Samt publication   Sahrayyan, Amir, (2003), applying empowerment approach in informal settlements, case study: Jafar Abad Neighborhood in Kermanshah, MS Thesis, University of shahid Beheshti   Sarrafi, Mozaffar, (2002), toward national strategy to organize the informal settlement, Journal of Haft-shahr, Vol 3, No. 10-9 .   Shahidi, Akram, (2007), empowering local informal settlements, a step toward urban sustainability, housing and Revolution journal, No. 47, pp. 44-51 .   Tavassoli, Gholam Abbas, (1995), Urban Sociology, University of Payam nour   The County Planning Department, East Azarbaijan province, (2007), the province spatial planning, Volume II, Social and Cultural Analysis   Thorns, David. C, 2002, The Transformation of cities urban theory and urban life, Palgrave, McMillan   UN, Habitat, 2003, Challenge of slums, global report on human settlement   Veddeld, trond & albhay siddham, 2002, livelihood and collective action among slum dwellers in a megacity (New Delhi) at www. Dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/achieve   www.sci.org.ir   Ziari, Karamatolah, Azar dokht, Nozari, (2009), organizing and empowering the informal settlement in Ahwaz, Journal of Human Geography researches, No. 68, pp. 21-36 .      

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: Slum dwelling
  • informal settlements
  • Ahar
  • empowerment