برنامه‌ریزی کاربری اراضی در مناطق حساس شهری مطالعه موردی رود دره فرحزاد-تهران

نویسندگان

چکیده

  رود- دره‌های شهری یکی از عوامل مهم در شکل گیری تحولات ساختاری و عملکردی شهرها به شمار می‌روند. در این کریدورهای طبیعی، علاوه بر جریان دایمی یا فصلی آب، ارزش‌های بصری و طبیعی و نیز در کنار آن الگوی فعالیتی /عملکردی متفاوتی (در قالب عملکردهای تفریحی-توریستی، اقتصادی و حتی در مواردی زندگی انسانی) وجود دارد. در نظریات معطوف به توسعه پایدار شهری، بهره‌گیری مناسب از این نواحی در چارچوب تدوین طرح‌های مناطق حساس و حیاتی شهری در دستور کار نهادهای مسئول شهری قرار گرفته است. گسترش سریع شهر تهران در سال‌های اخیر و افزایش رشد شهرنشینی موجب کاهش ارزش‌های محیطی و ایجاد برنامه‌های توسعه گسترده بدون در نظر داشتن ملاحظات زیست محیطی شده است. این گرایش موجب برهم خوردن تعادل زیست محیطی در شهر و به ویژه مناطق حساس آن شده است. با توجه به این موضوع، برنامه ریزی کاربری اراضی شهری در این محیط‌ها و الزامات خاص موجود در آنها بسیار اهمیت پیدا می‌کند. در این مقاله، تلاش شده است با بهره گیری از چارچوب نظریه مناطق حساس شهری و با استفاده از مدل AHP ، سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS) و نیز با توجه به رویکرد حفاظت محور، فرآیند برنامه ریزی کاربری اراضی رود- دره فرحزاد مورد توجه قرار گیرد. نتایج نشان می­دهد که حدود 77 درصد از اراضی این رود-دره در محدوده‌هایی با درجه حفاظت بالا قرار گرفته‌اند و باید از اشغال مناطق مسکونی آزاد شوند و کاربری‌های مناسب با ارزش‌های محیطی (نظیر کاربری‌های فراغتی و یا تفریحی) جایگزین آنها شود. در نهایت، با توجه به تحلیل‌های مکانی حاصل از پژوهش به ارائه سیاست‌های خرد و کلان و نیز راهبردهایی جهت دستیابی به اهداف حفاظتی رود- دره توجه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Land Use Planning in the Urban Sensitive Areas Case Study, Farahzad Valley Stream-Tehran

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Mahmoodi
  • M. Rafieian
  • S. Shayan
چکیده [English]

  Land Use Planning in the Urban Sensitive Areas Case Study, Farahzad Valley Stream-Tehran       M. Rafieian, M. Mahmoodi, S. Shayan   Received: December 13, 2011/ Accepted: June 09, 2012, 13-16 P           Extended Abstract   1-Introduction   As an important fundamental Issue in urban planning, land use suitability assessment provides important reference for planning, planning management, planning implementation and planning evaluation. Whether at home or abroad, many scholars and planning workers have made in-depth study and explore at the approaches of land suitability assessment, especially in the use of GIS technology. Land use suitability assessment is an important fundamental work in urban planning. Be restricted by technology and means, qualitative analysis methods are wider used in evaluating land use suitability. It is necessary to explore a quantitative evaluation method to provide a reliable basis for in-depth analysis of urban planning and improve the persuasiveness of the decision-making and objectivity and science of the urban planning.     2-Theoritical Bases   Urban valley stream is one of the important factors in making structural and functional evolutions of cities. In these natural corridors, in addition to, permanent or periodic flow of water, visual and natural values, as well as different function/ action pattern -in the form of tourism- recreation, economical functions, and even human life- are existed. In theories related to urban sustainable development, optimum utilization of these areas in the framework of sensitive areas and urban vital plans is considered by urban institution. Urban Managers are using a number of programs and policies to guide and control growth in the urban valley streams. These growth management measures include such policies as:   Smart growth programs - includes a range of approaches to contain development by using more efficient and compact urban development patterns that preserve open space and protect environmentally sensitive areas.   Alternative zoning ordinances-These can be used to protect forests, wetlands, floodplains, or environmentally sensitive land. There are several different forms of alternative zoning ordinances likes Floating zones, Overlay zones, Cluster development, Incentive zones and Impact fees.   Transferable development rights (TDR)-Under this program, a landowner is assigned rights to develop which cannot be used on sensitive land but can be transferred to other land or sold to other developers.   Purchase of development rights (PDR)-Under this program, landowners can volunteer to sell the development rights to their land to the local government or a nonprofit group while retaining ownership of the land. The current and future owners of the land are restricted from development activities.   Conservation easements-Conservation easements that permanently restrict the use of a particular tract of land can be purchased by local agencies or by private groups.   Priority funding areas (PFA)-Under this program control growth by limiting State support for growth-related projects such as sewer and water systems to locally designated growth areas.   Open-space preservation-Open or green space is defined as agricultural and forestry land in a natural state or land developed only to the extent consistent with the protection of the environment .     3-methodology   The rapid development of IT technology and gradually maturing of GIS technology applications provides the foundation for urban planning from the qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis. Through the evaluation method, we can clearly determine the space relationship of "strict protection - appropriate protection - general use - optimal use - key development" in different policy conditions, so as to provide a solid theoretical foundation and serviceable content for urban planning. In this research, it is tried to use urban sensitive area theory framework utilizing AHP model, geographic information system (GIS), and conservation- based approach, urban land use planning process in Farahzad’s valley stream is considered. In general, the current study focuses on taking GIS as evaluation tools, but does not make in-depth research at the aspect of data source. On the basis of previous studies, this paper sums up experiences, uses remote sensing technology to broaden data acquisition channels and applies GIS-based Spatial Analysis method to land suitability assessment of Farahzad in Tehran.     4-Dissscusion   The fast expansion of Tehran during recent years and the increase of urbanization have caused the decrease in natural values and established widespread development plans without environmental considerations. This tendency causes collision of environmental equilibrium in the city, especially in urban sensitive areas. The final results are shown in following map and table. Based on data, urban land use planning in Farahzad area is very important considering current obligations. The result shows that about 77 percent of lands in this valley stream with assessment model applied are located in high degree conservation bound. Therefore, these areas should be unsettled areas and should be replaced to optimum land uses related to their environmental values. Finally, with respect to location results produced from this research, micro and macro policies and guidelines for accessing to valley stream conservation goals are presented. The underlying policy issues need to be addressed by the public as well as elected officials if natural resources in the interface are to be preserved.             5-Conclusion   Natural resource managers can play an important role in raising public awareness of the natural resource and conservation issues in the interface. Too often communities wait until development has begun before attempting to revise their land development plans. By then, emotions are often running high, and anger, divisiveness, and resentment preclude rational discussion about the long-term goals of the community. Because these issues are multifaceted, proactive and flexible land use policies are needed to deal with them.   Keywords: Urban development planning, land use planning, urban sensitive areas, Farahzad’s valley stream     Reference   American Law Institute, (1974), Law and Concepts, Washington, D.C, USA, P 186.   APA, (2006), Planning and Urban Design Standards, New Jersey, America, John Wiley.   Bischoff, A, ) 1995 ( , Greenways as Vehicles for Expression, Landscape and Urban Planning, volume 33, University of Massachusetts, USA, pp 317 – 325.   Boyd, J., Simpson, D ,(1999), Economics and Biodiversity Conservation Options: An Argument for Continued Experimentation and Measured Expectations, The Science of the Total Environment, volume 240, Number 2,pp 67-86.   Eppink, Florian V, van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M, Rietveld, Piet , (2004), modelling biodiversity and land use: urban growth, agriculture and nature in a wetland area, Journal of Economics, Volume 51, USA, PP 201.   Flink, C. & Searns, R, (1993), Greenways: A Guide to Planning, Design and Development, Island Press, Washington .D.C, USA, P276.   Geeson, Nichola & et al,(2002) ,mediterranean desertification mosaic of processes and responses, John Wiely, England, London, p 433.   Habitat Acquisition Trust, (2004), Creating Conservational Legacies, annual report, UN, PP193.   Hodge, Ian, McNally, Sandra , (1998), evaluates the environmentally sensitive area: the value of rural environments and policy relevance, Journal of Rural Studies, Vole 14, No 3, Great Britain.   Ismail, Ayman , (2009), Land use control and growth options for environmentally sensitive areas, Cairo University, Fayoum, Egypt.   Jongman, R., (2003), Ecological Networks and Greenways in Europe: Reasoning and Concepts, Journal of Environmental Sciences, China, Volume: 15, Issue: 2.   Lindsey, G., (2003), Sustainability and Urban Greenways: Indicators in Indianapolis, Journal of the American Planning Association, Volume 69 .   Michael, Jeffery, (2003), Efficient Habitat Protection with Diverse Landowners and Fragmented Landscapes, Environmental Science and Policy, Volume 6, Issue 3 , June 2003.   Ndubisi, Forster, DeMeo, Terry, Ditto, Niels D ., (1995), environmentally sensitive areas: a template for developing greenway corridors , Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 33.   Ndubisi, Forster,(2002), Ecological Planning: A Historical and Comparative Synthesis, The Johns Hopkins University Press, First edition,USA .   Noss, R. F, (1987), from plant communities to landscapes in conservation inventories: a look at the Nature Conservancy (USA), Biol. Conserv. 41.   Steiner, Fredrik, (1990), the Living Landscape: An Ecological Approach to Landscape Planning, McGraw-Hill, Volume 1, London.   Steiner, Fredrik,(2000), Land Suitability analysis for the upper Gila River watershed, Landscape Urban Plan, volume 50.   Willis K. G., Garrod G. D., Saunders C. M ., (1995), Benefits of Environmentally Sensitive Area Policy in England: A Contingent Valuation Assessment , Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 44.   www.britannica.com   www.frank.mtsu.edu   www.thegreatgreennorth.com   Yalcin, Guler, Akyurek, Zuhal, (2002), multiple criteria analysis for flood vulnerable areas, Ankara, Turkey.   Zhen,Lin, Cao, Shuyan, Wei,Yunjie, Dilly, Oliver, Liu, Xuelin, Li, Fen, Koenig, Hannes, Tscherning, Karen, Helming, Katharina , (2009), Comparison of sustainability issues in two sensitive area of China, Environmental science & Policy, volume12.    

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Urban development planning
  • land use planning
  • urban sensitive areas
  • Farahzad’s valley stream