بررسی و ارزیابی اثرات اقتصادی BRT بر کاربری‌های تجاری کلانشهر تبریز؛ فلکه دانشگاه تا چهار راه شریعتی

نویسندگان

چکیده

  رشد روزافزون جمعیت و به تبع آن توسعه شهری باعث ایجاد تغییراتی در جابجایی انسان و کالا در سطح شهر می­شود که گاهی این تغییرات از نظر ساختاری با سیستم موجود در شهر خوانایی ندارند. سیستم BRT یکی از اشکال حمل و نقل توده‌ای است که در راستای حل مشکل ترافیک و حرکت به سمت توسعه پایدار شهری طراحی و اجرا شده است. در این مسیر برنامه ریزان و سیاستگذاران همچنان به سرمایه گذاری در شبکه حمل و نقل و متراکم سازی اراضی، فارغ از اثرات وسیع اقتصادی- اجتماعی بر سیستم شهر، علاقه نشان می‌دهند. این مطالعه با هدف بررسی و ارزیابی اثرات سیستم BRT بر کاربری‌های تجاری حاشیه خیابان در شهر تبریز از فلکه دانشگاه تا چهارراه شریعتی انجام پذیرفت ه است . روش پژوهش اسنادی و میدانی است و داده‌ها به صورت پیمایشی از طریق پرسشنامه و مصاحبه با کسبه و بازاریان جمع آوری شده است. سپس با استفاده از نرم افزرارهای ACCESS و SPSS تجزیه و تحلیل و پردازش اطلاعات صورت گرفته و در نهایت با وارد کردن داده‌ها به محیط GIS ، از طریق ماژول زمین آمار ( Geo Statical )، نمودارهای مکانی داده‌ها ترسیم و نقشه‌های خروجی برای سهولت تجزیه و تحلیل بصری آماده شده‌اند. بر اساس نتایجی که از تحقیق حاضر به دست آمده است؛ سوای رکود بازار و مشکلات اقتصادی، تأثیرات سوء خطوط BRT بر کاربری­های تجاری به خصوص در قیمت سرقفلی­ها و اجاره‌بها و تعداد مراجعه کنندگان به مغازه­ها و فروشگاه‌ها به طور چشمگیری نمایان است که البته اثرات سوء بر کاربری‌های تجاری قسمت شمالی نسبت به کاربری‌های جنوبی ملموس­تر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Investigation and Evaluation of Economic Effects of BRT on Commercial Efficiencies of Street Margin, the Case Study of Tabriz Metropolitan (from University Square to Shariati Crossroads)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Safarpoor
  • A. Ghanbari
  • Gh. Kord
چکیده [English]

  The Investigation and Evaluation of Economic Effects of BRT on Commercial Efficiencies of Street Margin, the Case Study of Tabriz Metropolitan (from University Square to Shariati Crossroads)       A Ghanbari, M. Safarpoor, Gh. Kord   Received: May 01, 2011/ Accepted: January 16, 2012, 31-34 P           Extended abstract   1- Introduction   With increasing urbanization and subsequent population density in cities in the era of globalization and global economic integration, providing a public transportation system which is efficient, effective, safe and inexpensive leads to economic, social and environmental sustainability. So that other indicators such as travel time, traffic, fuel consumption and air pollution be improved, in addition to the current direction of traveling towards public transportation. BRT system is one of the forms of mass transit which had been designed and implemented in order to solve urban traffic problems and move toward sustainable urban development. In this way, planners and policy makers are still interested in investing in a transportation network and density of lands as an alternative to eliminate private cars, reduce traffic and its adverse effects. This paper investigates and evaluates the effects of BRT system on commercial land uses of street margin, in Tabriz from university square to Shariati cross- road.     2- Methodology   The sample size of the study includes all economic businessmen of the margin of street in the studied area in Tabriz in 2010-2011. The statistical sample of the survey was selected according to the random sampling method. There were 180 commercial land uses with special separation of the main junction 75 questionnaires were returned and analyzed from the north side of the street and 75 ones were returned and analyzed from the south side of the street and the questionnaire return rate was 83 percent. In this study, interview method had also been used.     3- Discussion   BRT lines in Tabriz were designed to solve traffic problems and transportation. But regardless of its influential effects on the transport of Tabriz, adverse effects had been imposed on trade margin land uses in the studied area. In the area of study, due to the narrow width of passage, BRT line had allocated in one side of the street and other side of streets had been allocated to moving and handling personal vehicles that has led to slow movement and increase in volume of traffic. This resulted in the decrease of customers referring to shop across these lines, because people who want to buy goods and commodities from these places were no longer willing to go to these places and purchase goods from the North side of the street, due to various problems such as lack of parking places for private cars, preventing marginal park in the avenues, problems caused by going through the width of streets, waste of time and so on. Also, following to the investigations made, many shop owners and even some of the pedestrians have mentioned the BRT lines as a barrier wall . In the studied area, due to the narrow width passages, BRT line has allocated almost one side of the street and the rest of streets have been allocated to moving and handling personal vehicles that has resulted in slow movement and an increase in the volume of traffic. Besides BRT, other factors as well had affected sales and rents of shops. Some of them include: pavement design and its width, distance from trading centers or in other words, city's pedestrianism center, presence or absence of parking possibility for customers' cars, distance from government and official land use due to occupied passageways, the accumulation of shops in a bunch, price of shops, shops and distance from bus stops. In addition, based on the evaluation of the questionnaire results and interview with the local shopkeepers, this is clearly observable that the effect degree is not identical in North and South streets.     4- Conclusion   Apart from the market stagnancy and economic problems, BRT lines have negative effects on commercial land use, especially at the price of rents and the number of stores' clients. In general, the results point to a real recession and application changes of land uses in the north side of street (the margins of BRT Line) which is more than the south side of street and following these changes, the owners of the shops in north street and those who want to invest tend to use the shops of Southern part. Based on our investigation, most shop owners and even some of the pedestrians had mentioned the BRT lines as a barrier wall.     5- Suggestions   Based on the results of this research, it can be seen that following each step in the process of urban management many lateral and hidden feedbacks are visible which point to a multi-dimensional and chained link among the elements and parts of a city. In this regard, there is a need for a planning based on comprehensive approach and a system such as strategic planning to organize urban planning and management system in a way that it enables us to control and monitor feedback from the urban plans. Hence, according to current investigations, executive suggestions are as follows:   Construction of parking within the scope of target services   Reducing the distance between stations   Tax relief for the losses   Other policies that attract citizens to the target locations such as the provision of green spaces, parks and other urban lively spaces in the target scope   And finally, if possible, transferring BRT route to the middle line of the street.   Keywords: BRT, Economic Effects, Commercial Land Uses, Tabriz.     References   Au Sullivan, Arthur, (2009), issues in urban economics (two volumes), translated by J. Ali Ghaderi Ghaderi, Light of Knowledge, Third Edition.   Banister, D. D. Stead, P. Steen, J. Akerman, K. Dreborg, P. Nijkamp and R.S. Tappeser (2000), European Transport Policy and Sustainable Mobility, London: Spon.   Daniel A. Rodriguez and Carlos H. Mojica (2008), Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Land Line .April 2008, Land Value Impacts of Bogota’s Transmilenio.   Daniel A. Rodriguez, Carlos H. Mojica (2009), Capitalization of BRT network expansions effects into prices of non- expansions areas, Transportation Research Part A, Vol. 43, PP: 560-571.   Department of Housing and Urban Development (1996), the Urban Design Standards, Section 10 pavements, First Publishing.   Ghavami, S., and Morsel (2010), Integrating GIS and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to evaluate the performance of the Tehran bus lines, National Geomatics.   Jennifer Blonn, Deven Carlson, Patrick Mueller, Ian Scott (2006), Transport 2020 Bus Rapid Transit: A Cost Benefit Analysis, Prepared for Susan Devos, Chair Madison Area Bus Advocates Madison, Wisconsin.   Kenneth A. Small & Erik T. Verhoef. 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(2009), performance evaluation BRT transport system in Tehran metropolitan, dissertation master degree in Geography and Urban Planning, Faculity of Geography, Tehran University.   Parker, S, A (2003), A Guide to public Transportation Security Resources, Transit Cooperative Research program. Vol. 1, No. 59.   Public relations and Suburbs Bus Company, Tabriz (2008), Tabriz Bus Company in History.   Shahi Hussein, (2007), the Silk Road Journal, No. 77 and 78 (December).   Statistical Center of Iran (2007), the Statistical Yearbook of 2006, Tehran: Statistical Center of Iran.   Tabriz Bus Organization, (2010).   US General Accounting Office (2001), Bus Rapid Transit Shows Promise (No. gao-01-984). General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.   Vazin, GH., (2005), Organizing Urban, "Urban technique, second edition, Tehran: Publication Nashr and Darakhshesh.   Zaruny, MR (1997), issues in urban transportation planning.   Vuchic, V (2005), Urban Transit Operations, Planning and Economics. Hoboken: john Wiley & Sons.   Wright L, Hook W (2007), Bus Rapid Transit Planning. Institute for Transportation and Development Policy127 W. 26 Street, Suite 1002 New York, 3 edition   Wright, L. (2003), Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-Makers in Developing Cities. Module 3d, Bus Rapid Transit. GTZ.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • BRT
  • Economic Effects
  • Commercial Land Uses
  • Tabriz