انتشار آلاینده‌های جوی چالش زیست محیطی شهر اصفهان

نویسندگان

چکیده

  حوادث بحرانی سال‌های اخیر در خصوص افزایش میزان آلاینده­های جوی، ضرورت شناخت بیشتر علل وقوع این حوادث را مطرح ساخته است. افزایش میزان آلاینده‌ها از سطوح مجاز در سطح کوتاه مدت و بلند مدت بر محیط زیست اثر گذار بوده به طوری که اثرات کوتاه مدت آلودگی هوا به صورت بروز و تشدید بیماری‌های چشمی، تنفسی، ریوی، سرطان و ... ظاهر می‌شود. اثرات بلند مدت آلودگی هوا به صورت تاثیر بر نقشه ژنیتکی بدن جانداران، میزان هوش و فیزیولوژی بدن ظاهر می‌شود. هوای آلوده، آب و خاک را آلوده ساخته و آبزیان و گیاهان را نیز تحت تاثیر قرار می‌دهد که این مواد با قرارگیری در زنجیره غذایی انسان از این طریق نیز آسیب رسانی می‌نمایند. در این پژوهش با استفاده از داده­های آب و هوایی که در ایستگاه هواشناسی همدیدی اصفهان اندازه گیری می شوند و مقادیر آلاینده‌های سطح زمین که توسط ایستگاه‌های سنجش آلاینده‌های سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست اندازه گیری می‌شوند یک مدل آماری ارائه می شود که قادر به برآورد مقادیر قابل قبولی از اُزُن سطحی باشد. بررسی­های صورت گرفته در این پژوهش نشان داد معادله­ای که از دو متغیر توان دوم تابش آفتاب و توان دوم غلظت گاز منوکسید‌کربن بهره‌گرفته بود توانست توجیه‌گر 35% تغییرات غلظت اُزُن سطحی در طول روز باشد. اگر چه مدل­های رگرسیونی چند متغیره توان قابل توجهی برای توجیه تغییرات اُزُن سطحی و پیش بینی غلظت آن دارند، اما تعدد متغیرهای ورودی آنها موجب می‌شود که این مدل‌ها از دیدگاه کاربردی چندان مفید نباشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Atmospheric Pollutions Emissions, environmental challenges of Isfahan City

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Hasheminasab
  • V. Ezzatian
چکیده [English]

  Atmospheric Pollutions E missions , environmental challenges of Isfahan City       V. Ezzatian , S. Hasheminasab   Received: June 28, 2011/ Accepted: April 10, 2012, 35-38 P           Extended abstract   1-Introduction   The recent fatal events with regard to the rise in the atmospheric pollutants levels have suggested that the reason of their occurrence be more identified. The long-term and short-term effects on the environment caused by pollutants that reached unacceptable level are apparent existence of pollutatnts has led to short-term effects such as appearance and aggravation of cancer and respiratory‚ optic and lung diseases. The sequence of long-term effects is seen on DNA‚ intelligence and physiology. The air pollution results in water and soil pollution. Of course, aquatics and plants are under the influence of these pollutions. Men are not safe from them because they enter man’s food chain too. The statistical model represented in this research can estimate the acceptable rate of surface- ozone by measuring the climatic data of synoptic meteorology of Isfahan Station and evaluating surface pollution rate of station of the Environment Protection Agency. This research shows that equations that profited from two variables including square sunshine and square carbon monoxide concentration could explain %35 of concentration changes in surface- ozone during a day. Even though multivariable regression models can explain dramatical concentration changes in surface– ozone and protector concentration, practical use of these models is limited because of numerous entrance variables. Ozone as one of the most significant secondary pollutants not only influences general health but also has a considerable effect on agriculture. Surface – ozone is in ppm or ppb and it comprises the number of ozone molecules per million and per billion of air molecule.     2- Theoretical basis   As regards exceptional importance and poisonous state of ozone special in agriculture, it is essential to measure the rate of this gas for quantitative and qualitative survey of garden products and birds and livestock’s health. In general pollutants threat stable development and environment. Furthermore, because its rate is higher than acceptable level, it disrupts man’s daily activities. So, it is necessary to study this process. To display a statistical model is the purpose of this study so that surface- ozone rates can be acceptably estimated using atmospheric factors. The main question is this: can an appropriate estimate of surface- ozone rates be determined using a statistical model? It is assumed in this study that climatic factors of land surface play remarkable role in surface- ozone forming. Statistical models using Excel and Spss Software have been used to regionalize pollutant rates. At first, necessary entrance data were adapted from Isfahan Meteorology Station. Data include: A) Temperature and soil moisture. B) Atmospheric factors including: air temperature, atmospheric humidity, sunshine, wind velocity and precipitation.   C) Land surface data of pollutants adapted from the Environment Protection Agency including: surface-ozone, so2, Nox. Then, using these data and specific model, a relationship was found to estimate surface concentration. This study has been done in Isfahan. Climatic data and air pollution and atmospheric pollutants data have been taken from measuring station of air quality in five centers of city (Laleh Square, Bozorgmehr Square, Azadi Square).     3– Discussion   Data of daily mean temperature during statistical course is 16.7c. Median, variance and standard deviation are 17.9, 95.2 and 9.8, respectively. Minimum and maximum temperatures are -6.6 and 33.4 ◦ centigrade. Based on skewness test and Kolmogorov – Smirnov Test frequency distribution of temperature data is normal. Mean dew-point temperature is -1.9 during studying course. This factor also has a normal curve like temperature. But Kolmogorov- Smirnov Test shows a contrary result. Range of dew-point temperature is between -25.9 to 14.2. Standard deviation is 5.7 ْ◦ centigrade that is lower than standard deviation of temperature (10.9 ْ◦ centigrade). Mean dew–point temperature, median and standard deviation are -2, -1.4 and 5.2. Both above mentioned tests show that the frequency distribution is normal. Average of hourly ozone concentration data is 31.4 ppb and median is 27 ppb. Mode as the most abundant in this statistical sample is 10.1ppb. Three above mentioned statistics are not the same. So, frequency distribution curve of hourly ozone concentration is not normal. Furthermore, because Mod

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Secondary pollutants
  • statistical models
  • ozone level
  • Regionalization