ارزیابی و تحلیل فضاهای عمومی شهری با استفاده از مدل تاپسیس (مطالعه موردی: شهر تبریز)

نویسندگان

چکیده

  فضاهای عمومی شهری یکی از مهم‌ترین گونه‌های فضاهای شهری محسوب می‌شود. فضاهای عمومی فضاهایی هستند که عموم شهروندان از هر قشر، سن، نژاد و صنفی بدون هیچ گونه محدودیتی حق استفاده از آن را دارا هستند. هدف از بررسی و مطالعه فضاهای عمومی شهری (نمونه موردی شهر تبریز) بطور کلی، می‌توان ارزیابی وضعیت کمی فضاهای عمومی در سطح شهر تبریز، تجزیه و تحلیل پراکنش و نحوه استقرار فضاهای عمومی در شهر تبریز را بیان کرد. در پژوهش حاضر سعی بر آن شده است که کمیت این فضاها که شامل مساحت و سرانه کاربری‌های عمومی در شهر تبریز و سطح توسعه یافتگی آن‌ها بر اساس شاخص‌های انتخاب شده، بررسی شود. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش شهر تبریز است. و مناطق نه گانه شهری که تقسیم بندی آن بر اساس طرح جامع شهر تبریز است، انتخاب شده است. دوره زمانی پژوهش براساس اطلاعات سال 1385 بوده، داده‌های کمی مورد نظر در تحقیق بر اساس اطلاعات آخرین طرح جامع جدید (1391) است. ارزیابی فضاهای عمومی شهر تبریز به وسیله 11 شاخص اصلی و 75 زیرشاخص آن‌ها انجام شده است. تجزیه و تحلیل یافته‌های پژوهش با استفاده از روش تاپسیس و نرم افزار SPSS و GIS انجام شده است. بر این اساس هر یک از مناطق نه گانه شهر تبریز از نظر شاخص‌های مورد نظر رتبه‌بندی و سطح‌بندی شده‌اند که نتایج در جداول و نقشه‌ها ارائه شده است همچنین سطح و سرانه وضع موجود هر یک از کاربری‌های عمومی با سرانه و سطح استاندارد مقایسه و در جداول مجزا محاسبه گردیده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation and analysis of urban public spaces using TOPSIS model (Case Study : Tabriz )

نویسندگان [English]

  • R. Kooshaneh
  • M.R. Poormohammadi
  • M.R. Poormohammadi
چکیده [English]

    M.R. Poormohammadi, R. Kooshaneh   Received: October 16, 2012 / Accepted: March 11, 2013, 11-13 P           Extended abstract   1- Introduction [1]   Public spaces, which belong to all the individuals of different ages, occupations, cultures, and races with no restriction, are one of the most important parts in a city. Today, the importance of the studies on these spaces, considering the needs of the citizens, is more evident. Study and evaluation of urban public spaces, is an urgent necessity in planning the urban management and improvement, and it is a sign of the reproduction of these spaces which is done to improve the city in cultural, social and structural aspects. The approach to the study of these spaces includes 3 perspectives that are considered problems in literature related to urban society: a) Surfaces or areas devoted to public occupancy: the discussion here is the fact that how much of the general net area is devoted to public occupancy. b) Distribution of these spaces over the city: In this part, the dispersion and accumulation of each one of the public occupancies in a specific area, is compared to its standard ratio. The purpose of researching and studying urban public spaces (in this case, Tabriz) is as follows: a) Evaluation of quantitative status of public spaces in Tabriz b) Analyzing the settlement of public spaces in Tabriz and the dispersion of these areas c) Comparing the different public spaces in distinct regions of Tabriz d) Presenting required strategies to improve the general status of public spaces in Tabriz. The following research discusses these two assumptions: a) There is a meaningful relationship between the area and per capita public space in Tabriz and the current existing standards of the country b) There is a meaningful difference between different regions of the city in terms of development. The research method in this study is descriptive-analytical. Statistical research population is the city of Tabriz which, based on the general pattern of the city, is divided into 9 urban areas. Evaluation of urban public spaces of the city of Tabriz is done by means of 11 main indices and their 75 sub-indices. Analyzing the data of the research is done by using TOPSIS scientific method and SPSS and GIS softwares.     2- Theoretical bases   The current study first discusses concepts like space and urban space, different perspectives on urban spaces and a variety of different notions, different kinds of urban spaces, urban typology and urban theorists, content and functions of urban spaces and finally it discusses the importance of these spaces.     3- Discussion   Based on the goals of the current study and also the acquired results, it can be understood that according to the different mentioned indices, there is development inequalities and physical imbalance between distinct urban areas of Tabriz. Also, based on the results which were shown in charts and in addition to them, the maps of different areas of Tabriz that were researched according to each and every one of the study indices, the previously mentioned research assumption were proven to be correct. Thus, based on the results of the study it can be comprehended that in order to improve and expand the city of Tabriz in upcoming decades, acquiring improvements in decision making and executing the urban projects in the best optimized approach, regarding how the urban functions are settled and their fair distribution over the 9 urban areas of the city, is essential.     4- Conclusion   Urban public spaces are important factors in a city and in the field of urban occupancies, they are considered to be the field of physical and social communication. In general, citizens need spaces to meet their needs. Nowadays, we do not pay enough attention to these spaces and we have difficulties when it comes to their production or organization. Current study, based on urban public space indices, intended to illustrate the physical imbalance and also the improvement differences between urban areas of Tabriz.     5- Suggestions   According to the ever growing population of Tabriz during the recent decades and the imbalance and inequality of public spaces in 9 different urban areas of Tabriz, study and assessment of population density in all of the 9 urban areas by related organizations and finding and executing proper strategies that produce balance between public spaces and the present population of a given urban area, is more urgent than before. So regarding the lack of urban public spaces in Tabriz in most of the introduced indices, it is imperative to produce required spaces in each one of the regions that, based on the indices, suffers a lack of urban public spaces. Urban traffic is one of the problems that can be seen in most of the cities, in Tabriz, especially in downtown and the old parts of town, there is a heavy traffic during daylight time. It can be inferred that if the distribution of public spaces is done properly, it is only logical that the number of the people who, because of the lack of a required space, go from one region to another district, will decrease.   Keyword: Public Urban Spaces, Area and the Area for each Individual, Development Space Tabriz, TOPSIS Method.     References   Arsee, C. E. (1994). Comprehensive Plan of Tabriz, The Way and Urbanism Organization of East Azarbayjan Province.   Arsee, C. E. (1994). Designing of Development and Civil, Sphere of Influence of Tabriz.   Azimi, N. (2010). Position of Public Spaces and Urbanism With An Emphasis Urbanism India.   Bacon, E. (1967). Design of Cities, Tehran, The Research and Study Center of the Architecture and Urbanism of Iran.   Calthorpe, P. (1993). The next American Metropolis, Princeton Architectural Press, Dissent 479- 485.   Goodmann, W. (1968). Principles and Practice of Urban Planning, International City Managers Association, Washington.   Habibi, M. (1996). Dela Cite a La Ville, Tehran University.   Hafeznia, M. R. (2010). An Introduction to the Research Method in Humanities, Samt Publishers, Seventeenth Edition, Center of Human Sciences Research and Development.   Harvey, D. (1997). Social Justice and the City, Tehran, Processing Enterprises and Urban Planning.   Hekmatnia, H., M. mousavi. (2011). Model Application in Geography with Emphasis on Urban and Regional Planning, Second Edition, Novin Publishers.   Madanipour, A. (1992). Design of Urban Space, An Inguiry into a Socio-Spatial Process, Wiley, West Sussex.   Madanipour, A. (1999). Design of Urban Space, Tehran, Processing Enterprises and Urban Planning.   Norberg, Ch. (1971). Existence, Space and Architecture, Tehran University Publishers.   Rafieian, M., M. Sifaei. (2005). Urban Public Spaces, Number 23, Fall 2005.   Rogers, W. (2003). The Excellent City Park System, In What Makes it Great and how to Get There, (ed) P Harnik, The Trust for Public Land, Pub, Washington, DC.   Salehi, E. (2008). Environmental Specifications of Safe Urban Spaces, Tehran, The Research and Study Center of the Architecture and Urbanism of Iran.   Tavallaei, N. (1993). Urban Space, Social and Cultural Relations, M.A Thesis, University of Tehran.   Vazin, G. R. (2005). La Tecnica Urbanistica, Organica Urbanistica, second Edition, Derakhshesh Publishers.   Zista, C. E. (2004). Urban Complex Plan, Part One, The Way and Urbanism Organization of East Azarbayjan Province.   Zista, C. E. (2006). Detailed Design of Tabriz, The Way and Urbanism Organization of East Azarbayjan Provinc

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Public Urban Spaces
  • Area and the Area for each Individual
  • Development Space Tabriz
  • Topsis Method