تحقق پذیری برنامه ریزی محله محور در بافت‌های فرسوده شهری مطالعه موردی محله سنگلج تهران

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشیار دانشگاه

چکیده

محله‌ها از عناصر مهم و موثر تشکیل دهنده حیات اجتماعی شهری هستند. در گذشته، نقش‌ و کارکردِ محلات‌، موجب می‌شد‌ که افراد ساکن، پیوندهای اجتماعی بیشتری نسبت به امروز داشته باشند. در نظریه‌ها و رویکردهای مختلف مرتبط با توسعه محله ای نوین، اهمیت مشارکت اهالی محله، در قالب الگو‌های برنامه ریزی فرآیندگرا و تعامل محور، مورد تاکید قرار گرفته است. برنامه ریزی اجتماعات محلی با تاکید بر دیدگاه پایین به بالا بر توانمندسازی، افزایش سرمایه‌های اجتماعی و مشارکت جمعی ساکنین محلات تاکید دارد. در این راستا برنامه ریزی محله محور نیز برگردهم آوردن گروههای مختلف موثر ویا ذی نفع در چرخه نوسازی شهری و توجه به نیازها و خواسته‌های همگانی در تهیه طرح‌ها و برنامه‌ها تاکید دارد. پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از رویکرد برنامه ریزی محله محور با حفظ و احیای ارزش‌های محله ای و پیوند‌های اجتماعی، ارتقاء عملکردی و افزایش کارایی محله سنگلج را دنبال نموده است. برای سنجش ارتباط و همبستگی بین سرمایه اجتماعی و مشارکت، بعنوان مولفه‌های اصلی رویکرد برنامه ریزی محله محور در محله سنگلج از طریق پیمایش میدانی و روش‌های تحلیل آماری، با شاخص سازی و تدوین گویه‌هایی، به بررسی میزان ارتباط بین دو متغیر سرمایه اجتماعی و مشارکت محلی پرداخته شده است. نتایج تکنیک آماری همبستگی پیرسون نشان می دهد که بین متغیر تمایل به مشارکت و شاخص‌های سرمایه اجتماعی (شامل هنجار، امنیت، انسجام و اعتماد) با میزان همبستگی 0.396 رابطه معنادار مثبتی وجود دارد به عبارت مشخص با افزایش سرمایه اجتماعی در محله، میزان مشارکت خانوارها در طرح‌های بهسازی محله نیز افزایش خواهد یافت. آزمون رگرسیون نشان داد که حدود 16 درصد از واریانس متغیر وابسته تمایل به مشارکت شهروندان، توسط چهار شاخص مستقل اعتماد، هنجار، امنیت و انسجام قابل پیش بینی است.تحلیل‌های ترکیبی نیز نشان می دهد با تقویت شبکه‌های اجتماعی (در قالب گروهها و اجتماعات محلی) و ایجاد زمینه‌ها و بسترهای لازم برای برقراری ارتباط میان ساکنین محله در روند تهیه طرح‌های توسعه محله ای و در جریان هرگونه مداخله در بافت، می‌توان به بهبود و ارتقای سطح عملکرد محله ای، تعاملات و روابط مناسب اجتماعی میان ساکنین محله سنگلج نائل آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Implementations of Community Oriented Planning in Urban Deteriorated Fabrics Case study of sanglaj district in Tehran

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. foruzandeh 1
  • H. dadashpour 2
  • M. rafiyan 1
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract:
1-Introduction
Feel the need to contribute of neighborhood residents in process of improvement projects and their cooperation for the realization according to residents and reduce the displacement of people from the neighborhood, that sometimes without back, which causes the formation of this research. Theory and current trends associated with the development of a neighborhood shows how neighborhood social advantage over other aspects of its. So instead of spending a few experts on neighborhood needs and structural design, planning and the interaction step and management, based on empowerment, emphasis on human resources and social capital and collaborative partnership residents of neighborhoods has been emphasized.
Given two main concepts of social capital and participation of community-oriented planning,the main question of this research is whether Social capital can enhance the willingness of residents to participate in projects to improve the performance level of neighborhoods?
This study explore the relationship between social capital and residents willing to participate in local development plans in Sanglaj of Tehran."Social capital" and "the desire of residents to participate in neighborhood development projects" are variables of this study.
This study has been done in one of the neighborhoods of old Tehran, that has very low quality of housing.The Study space, is part of a historical figure in Tehran and is located in 12 district. Selected area adjacent with Tehran market and has its characteristic identity.
2- Theoretical bases
Studies have shown absence of local residents in projects that prepared for their space life caused people to look at projects and programs as lonely , and planner do not have any familiarity with the issues and needs of residents are considered. The concept of community-oriented planning is new approach in urban planning program, is based on social engineering with the aim of bringing together various groups concerned and public attention to their needs and demands in the formulation of programs.On this approach planning and management focusing on Empowerment-based, asset-based approach, focusing on human resources and social capital and collective participation of neighborhood residents.
Social development of sites, is a process based on voluntary participation among residents of a neighborhood, in order to improve physical conditions, social and economic. " Bullen says in this process is important to point out that social capital is a prerequisite for local development" and without social capital, neighborhood development would not be practical. (Bullen, 1999:26).Social capital that is an important elements of community-oriented planning, is defined as: social capital, like other forms of capital, is productive. This means it make possible certain goals that are not achieved in the absence of it. For example, the group that there are loyalty and trust among its members can do more things compared with other groups that there are no trust and loyalty among its members.
Neighborhood participation in planning: currently, participation in urban development projects is the icon of urban success and also its one of the evaluation criteria of city's performance management system.The participation in urban can be defined as participate and the serious presence, active, conscious, voluntary and well-organized and effective of urban unit community means the people, families, groups, institutions, organizations and public and private sectors in urban in economic activities, social, cultural for the urban community's collective goals.
3– Discussion
Correlation analysis of indicators of social capital and participation what can be concluded as follows. Results of Pearson statistical correlation techniques Shows that totaly there is a significant and positive relationship between the variables social capital indicators (norms, security, integrity and trust) and participation. The correlation 0.396 was calculated. This means that enhance or improving any indicators of social capital, household participation in community improvement projects, is also increasing.The regression testing shows that About 16 percent of the variance of the dependent variable (willingness to participation) by four independent indicators of trust, norms, security and integrity is predictable or in other words about 16 percent of the variance of the dependent variable (tend to participation) investigated with independent variables. (R Square = 0,161). (Sig = 0.000).
The research hypotheses test: Test results show that there are significant levels of correlation between participation (the dependent variable) and independent variables (social capital). (Significant level was equal to 0.000). and the correlation was 0.396. The increasing of social capital cause increase of tend to participation in the community. This means that probably 99 percent increasing of social capital will increase residents participation in community development projects and improving performance and will be realize the principle of community-oriented planning.
4– Conclusion
The hypothesis test confirm the relationship between social capital and residents tend to participation and this relationship is quite significant. The article results show that Promotion of social capital creates a positive attitude to the environment and the neighborhood. And this positive attitude can be an efficient source of many social interactions, such as social participation. Partnership who as facilitator of Neighborhood development, is an essential element of this process. Although in this study the effect of this relationship is not very wonderful but it can still acceptable and will rely on.
5– Suggestions
Since the promotion of social capital creates a positive attitude to the environment and the neighborhood and this positive attitude can be an efficient source of many social interactions, such as social participation, this relationship can be significant from the viewpoint of urban planning. Social participation as a facilitator of community development, is the essential elements in this process. In order to develop a neighborhood, urban space should be revived It means the open spaces formed to increases the public face communication. The city council and outdoor Leisure centers that by its citizens are organized especially youth, and decision making about local affairs, spontaneous to form the right cycle that promote the place and Increase the quality of the environment, resulting in increased social presence of people in the urban environment and it will increases environmental and social quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Community Oriented Planning
  • Participation
  • Social Capital
  • Sanglaj Neighborhood