تحلیل عوامل مؤثر بر رضایت‌مندی گردشگران خارجی از کارکردها و زیرساخت‌های گردشگری مطالعه موردی: شهر قم

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه زنجان

2 دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

3 دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

امروزه رشد روزافزون گردشگری و رقابتی شدن آن، لزوم توسعه و ارتقاء کمی و کیفی کارکردها و زیرساخت‌های مورد نیاز گردشگران را انکار ناپذیر نموده است. از این رو، شناسایی سطح واقعی کیفیت خدمات ارائه شده به گردشگران، نخستین گام برای افزایش رضایت آن‌ها و در نتیجه توسعه پایدار اقتصاد گردشگری خواهد بود. این پژوهش که از نوع پیمایش – توصیفی می‌باشد؛ با هدف بررسی رضایت‌مندی گردشگران خارجی از کارکردها و زیرساخت‌های گردشگری شهر قم انجام گرفته است. به علت نبود آمار دقیق از تعداد گردشگران خارجی وارد شده به شهر قم، با مراجعه به هتل‌ها و مهمانپذیرها و مراکز تجمع گردشگران خارجی، تعداد 200 نفر از این گردشگران که در سال 1389 به این شهر قم سفر کرده بودند، به روش در دسترس انتخاب و پرسشنامه‌ای به زبان عربی و انگلیسی نزد آنان توزیع و تکمیل و همچنین، مصاحبه‌های ساختار نیافته با گردشگران خارجی شهر قم انجام شده است. برای تحلیل داده‌ها، روش‌های آمار توصیفی - استنباطی و همبستگی به کار گرفته شده که از آزمون‌های T-Test، لون، ضریب همبستگی پیرسون، آزمون LSD و روش پیش بینی شبکه‌های عصبی استفاده شده است. یافته‌ها نشان می‌دهد که بین جنس، سن و تحصیلات گردشگران و رضایت‌مندی آن‌ها از جاذبه‌ها، امکانات و تسهیلات گردشگری شهر قم تفاوتی وجود ندارد، اما میان مدت زمان اقامت و مبدأ سفر گردشگران و رضایت‌مندی آن‌ها از جاذبه‌ها، امکانات و تسهیلات گردشگری شهر قم تفاوت و رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. نتایج پیش‌بینی شبکه‌های عصبی نشان دهنده‌ی آن است که با وضعیت کنونی گردشگری قم، امکانات خرید و سوغات با 100% بیشترین اهمیت و عدم رسیدگی به معماری و چشم‌اندازهای جاذبه‌های گردشگری و خلق فضاهای مفرح با 4/63% کمترین میزان رضایت‌مندی را ایجاد خواهند نموده. بنابراین، برای ارتقاء سطح درآمد و کسب منابع ارزی بیشتر از صنعت گردشگری در شهر قم، توجه به سایر گزینه‌های رضایت‌مندی گردشگران خارجی ضروری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Factors Affecting of the Foreign Tourists Satisfaction of Tourism Attractions and Facility Services, Case Study: City of Qom

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. ghanbari 1
  • M. mousavi 3
  • Sh. kazemizad 2
  • I. Ebrahimzadeh 2
1 Zanjan University
2 University of Sistan and Balouchestan
3 Urmia University
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract
1-Introduction
Nowadays the growing tourism industry and its competitiveness need for quantitative and qualitative development and promotion attractions and infrastructure is undeniable need of the tourists. So, know the real level of quality services to tourists is first step to increase their satisfaction. That will result in sustainable development of tourism economy. The economic effects of tourism industry in acquiring foreign exchange resources and promotion of tourism area revenue, in a country like Iran, to create employment and out of single-product economy based on oil sustainable development of tourism is considered as an undeniable necessity. Present unfortunately, tourism trustees and managers in Iran specifically religious tourism, planning to exiting tourism of Iran until the arrival of foreign tourists to the country. Internal cycle of this industry is affected by many factors and still has not economic and income look to international markets and it is great exchange and constructive influence. In this context for the city of Qom that have the religious, cultural, historical and natural numerous attractions and potential tourism development can be very helpful. But acquisition these benefits when possible that it’s appropriate civil institutions and social infrastructure is provided. Unfortunately, the city of Qom despite the tourist attractions still is unfamiliar to foreign tourists and even domestic tourists also are somewhat unfamiliar. Inadequate and unsatisfactory equipments of passenger transport, roads between cities, shopping centers, residential facilities, water networks, electricity, telecommunications, sanitation and hygiene in tourism centers has caused that this city cannot attract the tourists proportionate and its attraction
s. Thus, according to the weak infrastructure, facilities and services in a city in relation with tourism can be a problematic issue, identifies these shortcomings in the city of Qom and trying to fix it, and should be managers and custodians of the city's tourism priorities.
2-Research Methodology
The purpose of implementation this study, analysis of factors affecting of the foreign tourists satisfaction of tourism attractions and infrastructure (facilities services) in the city of Qom. This paper has been done by survey method and the data collected by the English and Arabic questionnaire and also, an unstructured interview with a sample of 200 foreign tourists in 2010 has been gathered in Qom city. Due to the lack of accurate statistics of the number of foreign tourists entering the city of Qom with recourse to hotels and guest house and foreign tourist’s aggregation centers, these tourists were selected by available method and a questionnaire containing 32 questions among them are distributed and completed. For data analysis is used descriptive statistics-inferential and correlation that used tests of T-Test, Leuven, Pearson correlation, LSD test and neural network prediction method.
3-Result and Discussion
Based on findings obtained from questionnaires, about 72.5 percent of tourists were male and 27.5 percent of tourists were female. 62.5 percent of the total population had been educated and 73.5 percent of the tourists without a college education or are illiterate. The numbers of foreign tourists were owned by 26 countries. Totally 143 tourists come from Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Pakistan respectively 86, 23, 19 and 15 people were tourists that more number of tourists to have allotted. This shows that is easy access to neighboring countries tourists and due to being more Shiite population in the neighboring countries of Iran, The number of tourists from these countries is higher than other countries. The number of tourists from other countries such as UAE, Kuwait, India, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Azarbaijan, Afghanistan, Algeria, Italy, America, Switzerland, Ireland, Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, Australia, China, Sweden, France, Russia and Brazil has variant from 7 to 1 person. The dominant goal of 85.5 percent of foreign tourists traveling to Qom, the pilgrimage and visit the religious attractions of this city and 14.5 percent other tourists has been expressed visit historic sites, visiting friends and acquaintances, Qom in being in communication path and other goals the purpose of his trip. 34 percent of tourists after entered to Qom have accesses very low amount of information about Places to resident of tourists, leisure facilities - recreation, a variety of natural and cultural attractions and facilities and 66 percent of the tourists have a positive and somewhat positive. Tourists who have traveled to Qom 51 percent have been experienced previous trips to this city that most of them belong to the Iraq and Pakistan. 83 present of tourists said that they intend to travel to Qom again. Surely, the satisfaction level of tourists who have traveled to Qom again in the frequency lower than that for the first time they experienced such a trip. Studies show that 0.8 present of tourists over 7 days, 3.4 percent of tourists 6 days, 3.4 percent of tourists 6 days, 5.2 percent of tourists 5 days, 8.2 percent of tourists 4 days, 12.6 percent of tourists 3 days, 22.8 percent of tourists 2 days and of 47 present of tourists have only 1 day stay in Qom city. Average resides of foreign tourists in hotels, hotel apartments and guest house of Qom city were 2.15 nights. In interviews with foreign tourists one of the major reasons for their short stop in Qom city express lack or naught awareness of the natural attractions and other extant attractions in Qom and around the of this city. Most tourists especially Arabs tourists express that more stop in Qom, the residence time is getting repetitive. Because, their visited only of religious attractions-pilgrimage attractions and lack of diversity in attractions to visit because they will cause fatigue. Therefore, prefer travel to Mashhad and northern of Iran that which has a diverse natural attraction and even a few days stay in Qom, in some cases up to a month there will be tourism.
4-Conclusion
The results show that among sex, age and tourist’s education and their satisfaction of attractions and tourism facilities in Qom is not difference but among duration of stay and foreign tourists satisfaction there is relation of attractions and tourism facilities in Qom city. Innuendo, the increasing duration of stay of tourists is the satisfaction of tourists. Also, there is relation between source of foreign tourists traveling and their satisfaction of the attractions and tourism facilities Qom city, because satisfaction of Islamic countries and neighboring countries tourism are higher than other countries. Prediction of neural network models indicate that with current status of tourism in Qom, souvenir and shopping facilities have most important and failure to the architecture and landscapes of tourist attractions and create fun places have the lowest levels of satisfaction among foreign tourists. Totally, can be concluded that the Qom tourism needs know the strengths and weaknesses and identify potential opportunities and threats in order to use of city and province ability and increase service and meet the expectations of tourists, especially foreign tourists and decrease the adverse effects of the interaction of tourists and the host community.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attractions and Facilities Services
  • Foreign tourists
  • Satisfaction of Tourism
  • City of Qom