ارزیابی گسترش فیزیکی شهرها با تأکید بر نقش مبادلات مرزی با استفاده از تصاویر ماهواره‌ای چند زمانه و سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (نمونه موردی: شهر بانه در مقاطع زمانی 1390-1371-1363)

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه زنجان

2 عضو هیئت علمی

چکیده

آشکارسازی تغییرات ناشی از مبادله تجاری و اقتصاد پویای مناطق مرزی یکی از نیازهای اساسی در مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی برای رشد و گسترش این شهرها است؛ بنابراین نقشه تغییرات کاربری را که نتیجه فرایند آشکارسازی تغییرات هست، می‌توان بر اساس تصاویر چند زمانه سنجش از دور تهیه کرد. در این تحقیق تغییرات، کاربری اراضی ناشی از گسترش فیزیکی-کالبدی شهر بانه در مقاطع زمانی 1363،1371 و 1390 با تاکید بر نقش مبادلات مرزی با استفاده از تصاویر سنجنده TM ماهواره لندست اخذ شد؛ سپس پردازش رقومی تصاویر ماهواره‌ای و سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی با بهره‌گیری از روش‌های پیشرفته انجام شد. در مرحله اول تصاویر یادشده با استفاده از الگوریتم‌های مناسب از لحاظ هندسی و رادیومتریک تصحیح شدند؛ آنگاه نمونه‌های آموزشی به صورت فازی در هشت کلاس کاربری و پوشش به وسیله نرم‌افزار Idrisi ایجاد شدند، سپس هر تصویر به طور جداگانه با استفاده از الگوریتم حداکثر مشابهت طبقه‌بندی شد؛ در مرحله بعد تصاویر طبقه‌بندی شده به کمک روش مقایسه پس از طبقه‌بندی مقایسه شدند. نتایج تحقیق بیانگر این است که مبادلات مرزی تأثیر شگرفی بر شهر بانه گذاشته و رونق و رکود مبادلات منجر به واکنش شهر نسبت به این تغییرات به صورت رشد فیزیکی، جذب جمعیت، اشتغال و بیکاری، رفاه یا عدم رفاه و ... برای ساکنان شده و همچنین مشخص شد که گسترش شهر بانه در چه ابعاد و مقیاسی به ترتیب شدت عمل، مراتع، تپه‌ها و دامنه‌های شیب‌دار، اراضی زراعی دیم پیرامون خود را تحت گسترش فضایی- کالبدی خود قرار داده است. بر اساس نتایج حاصله مقدار مساحت شهر بانه از 143 هکتار در سال 1363 به عنوان دوره قبل از شروع مبادلات مرزی به 372 هکتار در سال 1371 که همزمان با شروع تعاملات مرزی است و 946 هکتار در سال 1390 که مصادف با رونق مبادلات تجاری مرزی رسمی و غیررسمی است، رسیده است. همچنین روند توسعه شهر نشان‌دهنده این است که تمایل گسترش کالبدی- فضایی شهر بانه در امتداد غرب و شمال غربی است؛ یعنی منطقه‌ای که زمین‌های پست اطراف شهر در آنجا قرار گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of Urban Physical Growth with Emphasis on Border Exchange Along with Multi-temporal Satellite Images and Geographical Information System (Case study: Bane 1984, 1992 and 2011 periods)

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Ghaderi 1
  • M. Ahadnejad 2
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract
1-Introduction
Studies show that economic and social happening and irregular growth of population in cities lead to rapid increase of construction in the district of cities and finally the change to surrounding applicability will benefit the city. The city, in the every stage of development and physical growth, with overcoming of surrounding land, gives rise to shaping of particular pattern from surrounding applicability in different rate and dimensions. This will be in proportion to the past different rates and dimensions. From the main growth characteristic and physical development of city, we can mention influence of change of surrounding land applicability, rapid increase of growth in city district and etc.
Studies show that flourishing in border small market and exchange, in a particular border, attracts attentions and assigns a dynamic basis for native inhabitants. This action will cause the attraction of investment from other regions and the consequence will be flourishing of financial exchange and interaction. This financial flourish prepares a way for growth and progress of foundations and city constructions. The urban development is one of the topics.
Physical development of Bane, in early beginning of flourishing activities and border exchanges, was done intentionally in the old and central part of city (e.g.) in south.
The economic and political- social changes and financial flourishing activities and border exchanges were begun formally and informally from previous decades and with its development in recent decades, give a rise to increase of population, economic power, implement of development projects and finally lead to influx of immigrants to Bane. This migration results in rapid physical development of Bane and at last leads to immediate change of land.
2-Theoretical Basis
Smuggling stuffs is one of the methods of border exchange in broad scale in borders .Because of not having active and enough employment and plenty of benefits and extreme requirement of people to these imported and exported smuggling stuffs, people had to buy theses stuffs at any cost. It can be said that despite of capacity and potentiality in border districts, distance from border regional center is a geographical issue and result from theses regional structure. This from the view point of adoption of developing policies and anti-logistics lead to unfavorable consequences. The most significance of all is extreme limitation and marginalizing of these regions and not settling of these in the waves of logistics of urban development. This issue and lack of useful employment are probably the main reasons of smuggling in these regions.
With universal and territorial experience about concepts such as trade, employment, security, investment regions and small market border issues, it can be indicated that development and growth in it real time sense in a region happen when harmony of all forces particularly governmental department is provided. Creating security and giving attention to a region lead to economic growth, inflation decline, population stability and employment and satisfaction of all inhabitants. Therefore, if these examples experience a reverse process, there will be border regional evacuation, regional disappearance, and growth of pressing population to larger cities, informal and slum habitation, inflation and overall lead to collapse of all urban structures.

3-Discussion
In this research, satellite images, maps and charts and other accessed information are used in order to assess influence of formal and informal border exchanges on physical development of Bane in different time periods and also study the condition distribution of land applicability in extreme scale in outskirts( urban land, agricultural, and …).
During 1984 to 2011, the increased change of whole period in order was related to dry farming agricultural land with 1125 hectares and urban built land with 852 hectares. The rate and sort of this change in land applicability during this period of 27 years were brought in the above chart. From one of the factor of these changes, it can be the existence of the plenty of underground water spring especially in Shoe in Bane which is placed in the studies images. This underground water leads to increase of sub-cultivation of this region and also advancement of agricultural tools from traditional to modern. From the main reason of increasing of construction, it can be mentioned the influence of border trade interaction and available small market in region which the consequence of it will be the increase of migration of village to city and acceleration of construction and department stores.
Overall, it can be indicated from the maps and images that with flourishing of formal and informal border interactions in recent 10 years, its consequences are rapid increase of population and urban space growth. These rapid changes lead to progress of urban constructions in champing.
4-Conclusion
According to the outcomes of this research, maps, charts, and related diagrams, the most important impact of space extension in outskirts in Bane are on hills and sloping foothills. This factor in Baneh, according to topographical condition of city such as surrounded by Arbaba altitude from the south, Duzin from the north and Babos from the east and special condition of land in west (land belonged to broadcasting center, Avghaf, military garrison) caused difficulties in space development and the most progress happens in northwest to west which in primary stage gives arise to build land development in hills and sloping foothills. It can be concluded from the argument of this research.
5- Suggestions
For sustainable development future town, suggested transfer centers military and installations unnecessary inside tissue town such as vegetable fields, slaughterhouses and ... to appropriate locations outside the city limits codification terms and conditions appropriate to prevent the loss of land allocated for different uses the use of high buildings densities, high-rise building, miniaturization and reduction occupancy levels in physical growth more control government over the physical development of the city by applying the such as policies support of mass makers and implementation plans land preparation and also use the remaining lands in parts of the western and north east of the town comprehensive plans and detailed and buildings criteria.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Physical Growth
  • satellite imagery
  • border trade
  • Baneh