عنوان مقاله [English]
Participatory management is new approach in urban that has emerged in response to the shortcomings of traditional methods of urban management and attempts to participate all urban effective and stakeholder elements, in decision making and its related planning. But it should be noted that participatory management has complex process that is dependent on many variables and many factors affect it.
On the one hand, participatory management is an intellectual and cultural phenomenon that opposition to traditional and previous mental forms and causes sidelines persons and who are onlooker, be drawn into group work and commitment to their city and community, so it is largely dependent on culture and on the other hand, get executed requirements for participation are creation of Institutions, NGOs and legal entities and providing the necessary infrastructure at urban management. Also satisfaction of urban management performance and particularly municipalities is one of predisposing factors for Participatory management. So in this article underlying factors for Mashhad metropolitan Participatory management analyzed in 3 factors: A: participation popular culture B: peoples satisfaction of municipality performance and C: Availability of participatory management requirements.
2- Theoretical Bases
There are many factors that influence participation. These factors can be divided into two categories: Internal variables that are within one and external factors that are associated with environment and social variables.
In endogenous variables can be cited Weber theories that powerlessness is seen as an important factor in participation and are emphasized on beliefs, attitudes and ideas systems. From their perspective, feelings of powerlessness that there are in persons about an organization or institution is effective on acts and respond to that organization. Sense of efficacy and expectations of the success of a business or achieve desired results are within these factors. Thus, if citizens have been positive judged about participation in urban affairs, increase their participation likely. Also to be noted costâbenefit theories of participation that based on individual assessment of participation results, impacts on their performance.
The second sets of variables are social or external variables that can include membership in associations, social and economic base, social trust and etc.
Therefore participatory management is control of factors influencing participation and effects of participation on other factors influenced by. So participatory management have responsibility to explain factors influencing participation, influence mechanisms, necessity, results and reflect contributions of these factors, control their intensity on participation and measure other set of factors that affect participation. So, social organizations to build participation, should do actions such as citizenships education, informing citizens, motivation, material and incentive requirements, facilities, legal requirements, change of attitude, management practices and infrastructure provision.
People's participation is low and there is Significant differences between the mean of region 6 (region of low-income) with regions 1 (high-income) and 8 (average income).
Culture of Mashhad citizen participation is equal to 2.45 and lowers than average and there is no significant difference in the regions of Mashhad.
Average satisfaction of the City is 2.65, less than expected average and average in region 6 is lower than 1 and 8 regions.
About availability of participatory management requirements, the mean value obtained 3.0124 that are more than testing value only 0.012 and can say that the "availability of participatory management requirements has provided by city managers".
Study of underlying factors for Participatory management in three regions of Mashhad Municipality (1:high-income, 6:low-income and 8: average income) indicate that participation of citizens in Mashhad is low and people do not have much sense of duty and responsibility about issues and urban affairs. Also their satisfaction with current performance of municipality is low and according to significant correlation between satisfaction of municipality performance and participation rate (coefficient of 0.155), it is necessary to improve performance and increased satisfaction to increase participation rate.
Study the availability of participatory management requirements provided by city managers based average test showed that although participation mechanisms has been involved in their supply but needs more notification and informational acts.
-Given that people's participation in different areas has been low, and culture rate is lower than average, In the first step, municipality and city manager should take steps about training and necessary action for create participation culture and sensitize people to their urban affairs.
-Municipality should have more care in their actions and performance more attention should be pay to public comments and suggestions and provide background information and more awareness for peoples and citizens' trust and satisfaction. Use of urban good governance in municipality is useful tool for build confidence of the people.
-Municipality needs to focus more on low-income areas, to by satisfaction and therefore increase participation can help to development of these regions and spatial justice.
-In general, given the low rate of citizens participation and inappropriate conditions underlying factors in Mashhad, To promote public participation and participatory management, urban managers should Act first for creation of participation culture, improving their performance and satisfy citizens and after providing underlying factors for participation, It can be expected that obtained effective outcomes of participatory management in Mashhad.