تعیین معیارهای برنامه ریزی مسکن اقشار کم درآمد و ارزیابی طرح های اجرایی مسکن مهر در شهرهای کوچک

نویسندگان

دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

در سال‌های اخیر طرح مسکن مهر با هدف تامین مسکن برای خانوارهای کم درآمد، در غالب شهرهای کشور اعم از کلانشهرها، شهرهای بزرگ و کوچک به اجرا در آمده است. اجرای این سیاست در شهرهای کوچک با جمعیت زیر 25000 نفر که ساختار روستا- شهری دارند، از جنبه‌های قابل توجه است به طوریکه می‌توان آن را در انطباق با ویژگی‌های این گونه شهرها مورد بررسی و مطالعه قرار داد. با توجه به اجرای این طرح در چنین شهرهایی، مطالعه حاضر طرح پیشنهادی در پنج شهر کوچک از استان خراسان شمالی را براساس معیارهای برنامه ریزی و طراحی توسعه‌های جدید مسکونی برای اقشار کم درآمد که در ادبیات جهانی و مبانی نظری به آنها اشاره شده است مورد ارزیابی قرار داده است. از این رو پس از تعیین و سنجش معیارها به طور مجزا، با استفاده از روش TOPSIS شهرهای مورد مطالعه براساس مجموع شاخص‌های برنامه ریزی و طراحی، نسبت به هم رتبه بندی شده‌اند. نتایج حاصل از مطالعات نشان می‌دهد که در هیچ یک از سایت‌های پیشنهادی معیارهای کیفیت فضایی مانند فضای باز فراغتی، گوناگونی تیپ تفکیکی، اختلاط مناسب کاربری و طراحی متناسب با ویژگی‌های محلی رعایت نشده است درحالیکه در تمامی آنها نزدیک به 60 درصد کل زمین پیشنهادی به کاربری مسکونی اختصاص یافته است. اما براساس ارزیابی سایت‌ها نسبت به هم با استفاده از روش TOPSIS، در شاخص‌های مطرح شده، شهر درق الویت اول و شهر پیش قلعه آخرین اولویت را به خود اختصاص داده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining Planning Criteria of Low Income Housing and Evaluating Mehr Housing Plan in Small Cities

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Ataei
  • kh. Hajipour
Shiraz University
چکیده [English]

Abstract:

Over the last few decades, a variety of programs and policies has been defined and implemented for providing housing for low-income people. Among these plans, Mehr Housing Plan, which has been done in recent years by the government, can be seen widely in this field. During the last 5 years, the project in collaboration with various organizations including the Housing and Urban Development Organization, Housing Foundation, banks, etc. developed and implemented in towns and cities. Over the years, researchers have examined various aspects of the project and the presented positive and negative feedback on it.

Different studies show various aspect of this policy and evaluate its strategies to provide accessible housing for low income people with low (such as state land dedication, bank loans, etc), how to implement the policy, and many of the plan qualities and other areas of social and economic approaches have been evaluated. One of the notable aspect in this policy, implementation and construction of housing in towns with populations under 25,000 people, mostly are Rur-urban structure, and have become city lately. Cities in terms of social and cultural characteristics such as rural, tribal structure and are homogeneous, and in terms of economic they are related to productive resources such as agriculture and crafts and therefore their structure are consistent texture but undeveloped and in the best
conditions they uptake city services in their infrastructure space.

New residential development to provide housing for lower income people of society in such cities, it certainly requires study and evaluation of cultural and social, economic and physical issues, because if we consider the city with such features (small, underdeveloped and social context - rural economy) as system that it is as part of subsystems, and yet its development is consistent with local powers, the sudden impact of an external stimulus, induces high entropy relations in the system and the system itself will be heavily influenced, so that, if the positive and negative entropies couldn’t be detected and controlled, it will be assumed that the consequences (outcomes) of the driving force would be much higher than the resulting scores. Thus, understanding the nature and impact of the stimulus on different aspects of urban development can be one of the most important issues in the Mehr housing policy in small towns that includes a lot of economical and technical feasibility of such project for these kinds of the cities, to locating and design of the site and the architectural details.

However, after five years of the project implementation in various cities, the important issue is how the planning and design of the proposed sites be implemented. Considering that these sites are designed to low-income families, so the location, type of Planning and design capabilities based on their economic and social, local norms, etc. is very important. The review and evaluation standards, including the planning and design issues are of great importance. Principles and standards for the planning and design of residential sites, considering the goal of policy makers, administrative structure, site location (in terms of Land characteristics, access, etc.) and economic power and cultural society features is different.

So the government's housing standards for marginal and peripheral areas of the city are dramatically different with private sector standards in the area, according to the following specific objectives. Hence in the construction of low-income housing by the public sector in the surrounding areas of the cities, the overall planning and design principles and criteria for the proposed residential sites cannot be used.

Given that the target policies in the Mehr housing is low income people with multiple social stratification have been chosen, their economic power causes that the policy makers, design their projects, based on the help of public sector, and in the design and implementation least costs should be considered. But it should be noted that strategies to reduce design and manufacturing costs don’t cause the reduction of quality of residential site. In other words, given that the policy makers, managers, and experts think to optimize the costs of this project, not significantly reduce their costs, is of great importance.

Therefore, to achieve this objective, the principles and criteria of optimal design and planning of residential sites and maintaining the standards of a residential environment on the one hand and the costs of designed to meet economic power of users, have great importance in the planning studies in the low-income housing sites. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the appropriate planning and design criteria for low-income housing sites in towns and assessment criteria set by the Mehr housing proposals, based on the level of ownership and prioritize them relative to each other.

The present study evaluates the proposed plan for five small city of North Khorasan Province's based on criteria for a low-income residential planning and design of new development in the world of literature and theoretical foundations of them. Thus, after the determination and assessment criteria separately, using the TOPSIS Urban planning and design study based on the overall index, the ratings are compared. The results of these studies show that none of the sites offer quality criteria such as outdoor leisure space, different types, separately for proper mixing and is not designed to comply with local features, whereas in all of the nearly 60 percent of total The proposed land is devoted to residential use. But based on site evaluation of the method TOPSIS in the index, the city of Dargh has dedicated the first priority and Pishghaleh has dedicated the last priority.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • affordable housing
  • Mehr Housing
  • residential site planning criteria
  • design criteria
  • TOPSIS