عنوان مقاله [English]
Sustainable and continuous development of each country is depended to Sustainable of agricultural system .As food security, environmental security, improved economic status and overall survival and the life of the country will be possible to achieve a sustainable agriculture. Assess the sustainability of agriculture in rural areas as the focus of a significant share of the farmer population and the threats facing the sustainable development of agriculture, to be realistic plan for improving agricultural sustainability in action. In the direction Azna Township that has regions such as climatic and geographical conditions and farming as the main source of income and employment opportunities, appropriate development in rural regions is provided. Given the importance of farming activities and its close relationship with rural development in mind is the fact that the current extent of agricultural activity is sustainable? And the region's agricultural activities have been positive changes in terms of sustainability or not? Nature of agricultural sustainability is so that it can not be evaluated only according to objective indices. Since data for all indicators of agricultural sustainability can not be to collect as an objective and quantitative, therefore, should be given to collecting data mental indicators. In this study we tried to assess mental indicators of sustainable agriculture and meantime to consider the status of indicators compared to previous approaches towards the sustainable development of agriculture to offer.
Generally, all single definition of sustainable agriculture that is accepted is very difficult. Agricultural policies in sustainable agriculture and natural resources to produce the maximum sustainable production in the short term and long-term continued to be pushed. Land of the Brandt report, entitled "Our Common Future" in 1987 and its culmination in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro will provide different definitions of sustainability and sustainable agriculture. Some experts and others looked on from the vision of sustainable ecological agriculture, ecological aspects of the term assurance beyond mere knowledge and its receptor in the areas of ethics, sustainable development, sustainable rural communities and institutions as well. Thus, sustainable agriculture to balance economic, ecological and rural cultures together is emphasized.
Indicators to measure the attitude of farmers towards sustainable agriculture in the region, all 16 indicators, using Likert five-level range (too high 5, high 4, medium 3, low 2, very low 1) have been investigated. For this purpose, all the indicators together in the first phase of the study and obtained a total score for each individual. This score reflects the degree to implement the principles of sustainable agriculture and for agriculture. Therefore, the data entered by the cluster analysis and were classified in five groups and clusters obtained are named according to their scores. After this stage of research to identify indicators of sustainable agriculture in the region, all 16 index into the cluster analysis and were classified in five categories. Because of the nature of continuity in time, the concept of sustainability is hidden, so the trend is positive or negative changes in each of the past to be more precise evaluation of the indicators to be obtained. The Wilcoxon test was used to assess changes in each index. Finally, the four rural district study area to examine the issue of whether there is a tendency to the same conditions for sustainable agriculture, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used.
The results of cluster analysis shows that the activities carried 10/8 percent of farmers in a highly unstable, unsustainable in 32 percent, 30/4 percent in somewhat sustainable, 15/2 percent in the sustainable group and 11/6 percent in the group have been quite sustainable.Also evaluate the stability of each of the indicators in sustainable agriculture, 12/5 percent of the indicators in a sustainable, sustainable at 18/75 percent, Somewhat sustainable at 43/75 percent, 6/25 percent in the unstable group and 18/75in the group are very unstable. Therefore with due attention to average obtained from the index, we can say the farm level, crop rotation (mean 4/12 of max 5) and stable indicators of tillage (average 1/77 of maximum 5) of the unstable region. The results of the Wilcoxon test the parameters of the only indicators of pesticide use than in the past has had a negative process. This index is significant at the 5 percent level of past and present, farmers use chemical pesticides. Lack of suitable alternatives in this index, the most important factor in the spread as much of it. Finally, Kruskal Wallis test results showed that the four rural district study area and applying the principles of sustainable agriculture, there is no balance and coordination in the East Silakhor rural district is compared to other Azna township rural district.
â¢ According to the indicators of minimum tillage, crop and forest use of chemical fertilizers used in this study are quite unstable it is therefore imperative that the information about damages caused by excessive use of fertilizers, the use of minimum tillage and bed in order to use most of the crop is the forest.
â¢ Index of use of chemical pesticides has a negative process in this study for the purpose it is necessary to conduct scientific studies to provide suitable alternatives to farmers found. Otherwise, you should see more use of chemical pesticides and low quality products in the coming years.
â¢ Given the weak condition of other rural district in the East Silakhor rural district are.Therefore, in order to avoid regional imbalances and mismatches are of particular interest. This is especially good at protecting the quality and quantity of water in the rural district with other rural district show a large difference.
â¢ Finally, it is recommended to encourage farmers to high-performance, As the farmer, Those farmers will be introduced as a template That are both sustainable agricultural yield per unit area and time factors are too high. Way to motivate more positive attitudes toward the use of sustainable practices by farmers will be done.