عنوان مقاله [English]
In the present paper while studying theoretical approach and concepts of good governance, different perspectives as to it and indices, goals and salient actors in the context of good governance are considered. Studying indices of good urban governance in Mashhad with its special characteristics and considering different problems both in managerial and formal areas and among stakeholder groups (citizens and other sectors) is inevitable. So, considering the goal of determination of governance indices in Mashhad, 384 questionnaires were distributed among citizens and 32 among employees of municipality and municipal council and analyzed by descriptive and analytical method.
Weakness in municipal management and organizational structure of the municipal building to make up routines and procedures have and development activities in contexts of social, economic and physical infrastructure is built around. Therefore be paid to change in the field of urban management and the technical knowledge and Equip management with day and the important role that it has been and it is one of the tasks. Over more than three decades of Islamic revolution And new requirements and come with pre-existing inefficiencies in the field of urban management context that it can be used as a "model of urban government " named, Change in the nature of this model is felt. It seems that now, " urban good governance" can respond to issues and problems in developing countries, especially Iran
2- Theoretical bases
Increasing urban population and escalating demands of citizens practically-centeral - oriented of governments in responding to the needs of citizens who were challenged. Social and political theorists to the theoretical perspectives in order to restructure the political system of governance sought and urban regime theory to explanation the structure of power over others, especially in local government pay. Regime theory in order to achieve a very sophisticated understanding of the governance (Capacity for collective action to achieve public policy goals). This theory is important in this where not only the importance of internal links and dependence on government business will be emphasized, The voluntary sector and other concerned groups will also be involved in their analysis the same thing with the concept that the mind is governance. Regime theory, the nearest urban theory approach is governance and it provides the necessary theoretical foundation. Although this foundation, regardless of structural considerations and not political economy analysis and Forecasting of power need to be treated.
In order to track targets in the investigation 9 index good governance, according to the criteria proposed by the UN, has been determined and assessed. these indices are: Participation, Rule Of Law,Transparency,Responsiveness,Orientation Consensus,Equity,Effectiveness & Efficiency
Accountability, Strategic Vision. The variables were selected to measure each of the indicators.
In view of citizens the governance of nine indicators, most of the operating partnership and strategic vision, both the average is 2.5. With the items related to these two factors can be realized following
Citizens, in partnership with a mean score of 3.26 showed their great interest among all items that were rated relatively high and show the willingness of citizens to participate. It also plans to prepare and urban citizens consider themselves responsible for, rate this episode so obtained is equal to 3.10. The citizens of this has been criticized the process of preparing and implementing their plans are not Poll. rate this item which is equal to 1.46. A total of 2.5 points with Bynsh strategic partnerships with the highest score among the indicators is allocated to. It should be noted that the participation of citizens in some kind of mental approach has been evaluated, objectivity and citizen participation, is not considered
Citizens, in the case of strategic vision, to announce plans for the future of the city are pretty favorable, So a score of 2.76 is equal to the related items. And with regard to existing and future problems in the design by officials, the score is equal to 2.37. In this case, the mentality of the citizens towards the strategic vision of the authorities has been. The citizens of the worst operating condition of justice, with an average 1.6 and 1.8 have a aAccountability.Experts see indicators of accountability, and responsiveness and the mean of 3 and 2.9 respectively show the best position. The orientation consensus shows poor agreement with the average 2.2. Such that the most important current problems and coordination between the various disagreements Mashhad city messenger service
Overall, the results of the questionnaires are citizens and experts the mean good governance in Mashhad is equal to 2.32 less than the theoretical mean value (2.5) and represents the state of chaos governance is good. And a significant T-TEST test indicators in the 95% confidence level, shows. The first hypothesis was confirmed in this study.
Comparison of three regions studied show remember that the average index in the two study areas are not uniform. Looking back we find the F value in these two indicators, the region is it mean they are noticeably different study areas. But in other indicators, is equal in all three regions. In the second hypothesis, based on a non-equal mean good governance indicators in regions 1, 3 and 9, Mashhad, which was rejected.
The results indicate the inappropriateness of the overall average index governance in Mashhad. So mean governance is equal to 2.32 which the theoretical mean (2.5) is also less.
Indicators of citizen participation (willingness to participate) and strategic vision are best and justice and accountability have the worst. Indices based on the experts, accountability responsiveness and being responsive to the best. And orientation consensus of an agreement between the governance is in the worst situation. But the positive points that were obtained from questionnaires can be pointed to the willingness of citizens to participate the enthusiasm with which the opinions of citizens have been ignored by city officials. Confirmatory study areas is also average compared to the same indices. And suggests a lack of suitable areas of the lord of the citizens.
Including suggestions for improvement lord be presented include: Creating the necessary infrastructure, including laws and regulations to determine the presence of all stakeholders in the process of preparing and implementing urban design urban- More attention to underserved areas and to hear their voices and move towards creating an atmosphere of justice services- Consensus of local units in order to achieve integrated management of urban and inter organizational coordination- The appropriate units for responding to citizens transparency and build confidence by providing information and their information