عنوان مقاله [English]
The role of urban plans to reduce or increase urban vulnerability against earthquake is very important. Urban detailed plans are including the most important part of the urban planning include land use planning. The deal of projects with the issue of earthquake vulnerability, it is important to reduce damage that caused by natural phenomena. In the detailed plan of the first region of Tehran, according to studies, the Urban Land use zoning has been suggested.
2- Theoretical bases
Among the various levels of effective physical planning to reduce urban vulnerability against earthquake, is the Urban planning. Assessment of damages or injuries directly or indirectly related to undesirable urban planning and design. So what makes a disaster event earthquake in cities, in many cases is inappropriate urban planning. So reforming of urban planning Status can decrease the urban Vulnerability against earthquake. One of the techniques that can reduce the damage caused earthquakes in urban planning and urban areas, is urban land use planning to decrease the damage caused by the earthquake.
In the theoretical study and selection criteria, the proposed land use zoning in the detailed plan of the first zone of Tehran has been evaluated. Thus, each of the indicators, including the density of building, number of floors, access to urban open spaces, access, compatibility between land uses, the
location of a zone In association with fault Frontages, the distance with industrial land uses, the distance with Towers of Power, For each area rated and After determining each indicators to analyze the situation in earthquake-affected areas, the Cat Pca method is used.
Next, with using SPSS software and the Cluster Analysis, all zones were divided into four groups. Then, for naming categories to four categories including low vulnerability, moderate vulnerability, very high vulnerability, refered to the data rates of each indicator for each zone, and it was divisions and ultimately produced vulnerability map against the earthquake.
A total of analysis can be conducted to conclude that:
- If the building density is less, the Vulnerability will be less.
- If the height of buildings is less, the Vulnerability will be less.
- If the user access to the open spaces in urban areas is more, the Vulnerability will be less.
- If Adjacent land uses are Compatible with each other, the Vulnerability will be less.
- If the Distance of land use zones with faults is more, the Vulnerability will be less.
- If the Distance of land use zones with industrials land uses is more, the Vulnerability will be less.
- If the Distance of land use zones with Towers of Power is more, the Vulnerability will be less.
This study was conducted according to the principles of research and analysis, land use strategies to reduce vulnerability to earthquake zones provided:
- Decreasing the occupied land uses.
- Keeping the balance between population density and building density.
- Decreasing building density.
- Creating hierarchy of open spaces.
- Providing adequate and safe open spaces.
- Creating a hierarchy of urban streets.
- Designing wide streets.
- Locating high density user areas outside of boundary faults.