بررسی رابطه ابعاد سرمایه اجتماعی و دیدگاه شهروندان نسبت به توسعه شهری (نمونه مورد مطالعه: شهر کرمانشاه)

نویسندگان

دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دهاقان

چکیده

مفهوم سرمایه اجتماعی در دوسه دهه گذشته در مباحث مربوط به توسعه اقتصادی و اجتماعی جوامع بسیار مطرح شده است. یکی از حوزه‌هایی که می‌تواند متأثر از سرمایه اجتماعی باشد توسعه و به ویژه توسعه شهری است. توسعه شهری در ابعاد عینی بیشتر ناظر بر بالا بردن سطح زندگی عمومی از طریق ایجاد شرایط مطلوب و بهینه در زمینه‌های فقر زدایی، تغذیه، بهداشت، اشتغال، آموزش و چگونگی گذران اوقات فراغت است. با توجه به اهمیت موضوع در این پژوهش با استفاده از روش میدانی،تکنیک پیمایش و ابزار تحقیق پرسشنامه به دنبال پاسخ به این سؤال اصلی هستیم که چه رابطه ای بین ابعاد مختلف سرمایه اجتماعی و توسعه شهری از دیدگاه شهروندان شهر کرمانشاه وجود دارد؟ جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر شهر کرمانشاه است که تعداد 380 نفر از شهروندان 18 سال به بالای این شهر به عنوان حجم نمونه مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. در جهت پاسخگویی به سؤال اصلی این پژوهش به بررسی و تحلیل ابعاد مختلف سرمایه اجتماعی چون اعتماد اجتماعی، انسجام اجتماعی، مشارکت اجتماعی، آگاهی و تعامل اجتماعی به عنوان متغیرهای مستقل و رابطه آن با تحقق توسعه شهری به عنوان متغیر وابسته پرداخته شده است. نتایج تحقیق حاکی از ان است که بین تمامی متغیرهای مستقل تحقیق با متغیر وابسته رابطه مثبت و مستقیم معناداری وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Analysis of the relationship between the dimensions of social capital and Residents' view on urban development (Case of study: city of Kermanshah)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Haghighatian
  • H. Heidarkhani
Islamic Azad University-dehaghan branch
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract
1-Introduction
Today, in addition to human, economic and physical capitals, another capital namely, social capital refers to another type of capital that is related to the social and economic development of communities. Whereas the concepts of physical and human capitals refer to the tools and ideas that increase individual productivity, the concept of social capital refers to the characteristics of social organization such as social networks, social norms, and trust that facilitate mutual cooperation and coordination in the pursuit of mutual benefits. One area that could particularly be affected by the development of social capital is urban development. Urban development in its more objective aspect relates to the raising of the standards of life by creating favorable conditions in the areas of poverty reduction, nutrition, health, employment, education and leisure. Therefore, this article's main question is as follows: What is the relationship between the different dimensions of social capital and citizens' views on urban development in the city of Kermanshah?

2- Theoretical Bases
James Coleman sees social capital as the participation of actors in social structures which can be beneficial to some and not to others. Putnam considers trust, social norms, and participation in social networks as the three essential aspects of social capital. In his research on urban development in Italy, he found that those areas that had higher levels of social capital enjoyed higher levels of urban development as well. Two projects are of utmost importance in the area of urban management. These are urban development, and urban participation. Due to the emergence of "increasing urban growth", "increasing urbanism", and "complication of urban system", a rethinking of economic, social, political, cultural, and legal structures of the city is needed. Urban development seeks to accomplish this aim through the participation of people and the strengthening of urban economy and its political, social, and cultural life. And it is in this regard that social capital can be of great use.

3- Discussion
This is a quantitative research of the field research type which used a questionnaire to gather the needed data. Research population consisted of all the residents of the city of Kermanshah who were 18 years old or above, of which, based on Cochran formula, 380 individuals were selected as the sample. The sampling method was multi-stage: stage one was cluster sampling and in stage two, simple random sampling was used. The research instrument had face validity and its reliability alpha coefficient was above the 0.70 threshold. The data were then processed using the SPSS software.

4- Conclusion
In this research, different dimensions of social capital such as social trust, social solidarity, social participation, social interaction, and social awareness were considered as independent variable and residents' views on urban development was considered as the dependent variable. The results showed that the mean for social capital was 3.82, which was above the expected mean of 3. Of the different aspect of social capital, social trust had the highest mean (4.04), and social interaction had the lowest mean (3.66). The mean for urban development was at the medium range (3.07). The results also showed that there was a direct and positive relationship between urban development and social trust (r=0.477), social solidarity (0.179), social participation (r= 0.593), social awareness (r= 0.214), and social interaction (r= 0.369).

5- Suggestions
- The enhancement of urban social and cultural facilities in order to promote the spirit of cooperation and collaboration
- The mass media especially national and local television can broadcast programs that increase social capital
- The provision of programs and activities that encourage the participation of different strata and classes of people
- The indigenization and utilization of mechanisms and programs that other developed urban areas have made use of.
- Paying more attention to local traditions and customs and strengthening those aspects that promote trust and cooperation in place of putting emphasis on competition and rivalry.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Social Capital
  • Urban Development
  • Social Trust
  • social solidarity
  • community involvement
  • Social Awareness
  • Social Interaction