عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, in addition to human, economic and physical capitals, another capital namely, social capital refers to another type of capital that is related to the social and economic development of communities. Whereas the concepts of physical and human capitals refer to the tools and ideas that increase individual productivity, the concept of social capital refers to the characteristics of social organization such as social networks, social norms, and trust that facilitate mutual cooperation and coordination in the pursuit of mutual benefits. One area that could particularly be affected by the development of social capital is urban development. Urban development in its more objective aspect relates to the raising of the standards of life by creating favorable conditions in the areas of poverty reduction, nutrition, health, employment, education and leisure. Therefore, this article's main question is as follows: What is the relationship between the different dimensions of social capital and citizens' views on urban development in the city of Kermanshah?
2- Theoretical Bases
James Coleman sees social capital as the participation of actors in social structures which can be beneficial to some and not to others. Putnam considers trust, social norms, and participation in social networks as the three essential aspects of social capital. In his research on urban development in Italy, he found that those areas that had higher levels of social capital enjoyed higher levels of urban development as well. Two projects are of utmost importance in the area of urban management. These are urban development, and urban participation. Due to the emergence of "increasing urban growth", "increasing urbanism", and "complication of urban system", a rethinking of economic, social, political, cultural, and legal structures of the city is needed. Urban development seeks to accomplish this aim through the participation of people and the strengthening of urban economy and its political, social, and cultural life. And it is in this regard that social capital can be of great use.
This is a quantitative research of the field research type which used a questionnaire to gather the needed data. Research population consisted of all the residents of the city of Kermanshah who were 18 years old or above, of which, based on Cochran formula, 380 individuals were selected as the sample. The sampling method was multi-stage: stage one was cluster sampling and in stage two, simple random sampling was used. The research instrument had face validity and its reliability alpha coefficient was above the 0.70 threshold. The data were then processed using the SPSS software.
In this research, different dimensions of social capital such as social trust, social solidarity, social participation, social interaction, and social awareness were considered as independent variable and residents' views on urban development was considered as the dependent variable. The results showed that the mean for social capital was 3.82, which was above the expected mean of 3. Of the different aspect of social capital, social trust had the highest mean (4.04), and social interaction had the lowest mean (3.66). The mean for urban development was at the medium range (3.07). The results also showed that there was a direct and positive relationship between urban development and social trust (r=0.477), social solidarity (0.179), social participation (r= 0.593), social awareness (r= 0.214), and social interaction (r= 0.369).
- The enhancement of urban social and cultural facilities in order to promote the spirit of cooperation and collaboration
- The mass media especially national and local television can broadcast programs that increase social capital
- The provision of programs and activities that encourage the participation of different strata and classes of people
- The indigenization and utilization of mechanisms and programs that other developed urban areas have made use of.
- Paying more attention to local traditions and customs and strengthening those aspects that promote trust and cooperation in place of putting emphasis on competition and rivalry.