عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The Analysis and Prioritization of Development Grade of Luristan Towns Using TOPSIS Technique
Y. Ghanbari, H. Barghi, A. Hajarian
Received: April 7, 2012/ Accepted: December 12, 2012, 37-40 P
Regional inequalities in different layers of life like health, education, accommodation etc can show vividly the necessity for development planning in different regions. Identifying the present condition of regions is the most fundamental issue in the plan of regional development which requires the analysis of economical and socio-cultural sections.
One of the principles of development is its comprehensiveness and integrity in removing socio-economic imbalances in the regions (Fanni, 1383: 2). Thus, impartial distribution of development facilities and outcomes among the majority of population is one of the features of healthy dynamic economy (Friedman, 1699: 19). Realizing such a desire, the programmers try to decrease inequalities and lack of balance by executing various plans of eliminating deprivation and expanding all positive aspects of development. The first step in this regard is codifying efficient plans in line with realities, reaching the superior goal of social justice and recognizing the present conditions (Edward and Pool, 1988: 105).
2- Theoretical Foundations
Regional development is one of the issues which have attracted the attention of programmers, especially regional programmers, in recent decades. The major economic, social, sanitary, industrial etc indices are good criteria for determining the status of regions as well as require paying attention to particular considerations in regional level and determining the compatibility conditions and national-regional adaptability (Hekmatnia, 1383: 102). The aim of development theories is to analyze and explain the inequalities existent between countries and regions with regard to development. The theories of regional development were proposed overall after World War II as attitudes for establishing socio-economic justice, optimal and more efficient distribution of resources, re-allocation of resources, more balanced development of regions and decrease of inequalities. The pioneers of such theories are scholars like Walter Izard, Gornar Mirdal, Francois Perru, Freidman and Hirschman. Today the economists favoring balanced development theory propose the necessity of proper regional planning for achieving balanced development and believe that balanced regional development is to provide the best conditions and facilities for all-embracing development of all regions, minimize the differences of intra-regional and inter-regional life quality and finally remove them.
Grading of towns in different districts with regard to priority index (Ci) and development grade in 1385 shows that, according to statistical data of various indices, Khoramabad town has the first rank in relation to educational, infrastructural, agricultural, economic, rural development, cultural, sanitary and demographic sections. Also, at the end of ranking spectrum of TOPSIS method is Selseleh town. Regarding that such ranking has been done based on combinational indices in different sections of development, Khoramabad and Selseleh towns have first and seventh rankings respectively amongst the towns of the province. Amongst the towns of the under-study region inequality and incongruity are absolutely evident with regard to selected indices. No doubt some towns are rich regions with abundant potentials regarding life resources but they are at the end of ranking spectrum due to unprincipled plannings and partial allocation of funds and development facilities. Hence, the main reason behind this is the application of development models with centripetal attitude so that, in regional plannings, peripheral habitations simply play the role of observer of development and expansion of the center. In other words, the center of the province (Khoramabad town) has allocated to itself the major part of investments and a small part of investments and development resources has gone to peripheral regions.
There are different methods for ranking various economic, social and cultural sections which do not lead to identical answers necessarily. One of such methods is TOPSIS. Using this technique, the towns were ranked separately and combinationally regarding development and according to educational, cultural, demographic, accommodation, infrastructural, rural development, agricultural and sanitary indices. Then, the rate of inequality in the dispersion of facilities and resources was specified via the method of dispersion coefficient. Thus, the aim of this article, in the first instance, is to use a new technique for ranking.
The results of this research imply that Ilam and Abdanan towns got ranks 1 and 7 respectively amongst seven towns of Chaharmahal Bakhtiari province and the obtained dispersion coefficient was 0.36 which itself implies the presence of difference and intensity of inequality in enjoying the fruits of development.
In all, it can be said that Ilam town (the center of the province) has experienced lot of development and expansion via absorbing economic and social opportunities, facilities, welfare and money, skillful and specialized man power from suburban regions and it has had no useful variance and spatial influences on the development of suburban regions and even it has increased the deprivation of deprived regions somehow. In other words, parallel to the development and expansion of center, its peripheral regions follow an inverse trend so that a kind of divergence and incongruity between regions is seen in the structure of spatial development of Chaharmahal Bakhtiari province. Finally, it can be acknowledged that the pattern dominating the spatial structure of Chaharmahal Bakhtiari province is subordinate to the system of âcenter-peripheryâ and with the continuation of this trend the present gap and inequality is deepened. Thus, paying attention to spatial planning, the study of towns regarding the level of development and identifying deprived habitations in order to plan systematically and proposing proper and executable strategies in order to achieve balanced regional development is an ineluctable necessity.
- Since the dispersion of population in the province is imbalanced, the officials and policy makers in the province should pay more attention to the allocation of budget and provincial planning.
- It is necessary that plannings and policy makings are done according to potentials and restrictions of each region.
- Decision makings and plannings should be based on investigating and recognizing the levels of regionsâ development.