مطالعه و ارزیابی بافت‌های مختلف شهری با رویکرد منشور نوشهر گرایی (نمونه موردی: شهر تبریز )

نویسندگان

چکیده

تحولات اخیر شهرسازی بیشتر تحت تأثیر دو مکتب فلسفی مدرنیسم و پست مدرنیسم بوده است که هر یک به سهم خود تغییرات بسیاری در سیمای کالبدی و اجتماعی شهرهای جهان ایجاد کرده‌اند. آنچه مدرنیسم در شهر و شهرسازی از خود به جای گذاشت، توسط پست مدرنیسم‌ها با انتقاد جدی روبرو شد. گذر از مکاتب مدرنیسم و پست مدرنیسم باعث ایجاد مکاتب پایداری و توسعه پایدار در اواخر قرن 20 شد که رویکردی جدید به مسایل شهری و زیست محیطی دارد. دو انگاره شهر فشرده و رشد هوشمند را می‌توان از مصادیق توسعه پایدار شهری معرفی کرد که توسعه نظریات پایداری باعث ایجاد یک رویکرد پایداری در اکثر تفکرات شهرسازی به ویژه تفکر نوشهرگرایی شده است. نوشهرگرایی به عنوان یک رویکرد جدید طراحی و برنامه ریزی شهری در انتقاد به شهرسازی دوران معاصر که دارای الگویی پراکنده، غیر انسانی و ماشینی است شکل گرفته است.رشد سریع شهر تبریز در طی سال‌های اخیر باعث ایجاد نیازهای فراوانی در محلات و بافت‌های شهری و ایجاد بافت‌های جدید از جمله بافت‌های حاشیه‌ای شده است. وجود بافت‌های فرسوده و حاشیه‌ای شهر و نفوذ تفکرات سنتی و مدرنیستی و تقلیدهای کلیشه‌ای در تهیه طرح‌های توسعه شهری و ایجاد بافت‌های جدید شهری باعث ایجاد مشکلات عدیده در شهر تبریز شده است که این مشکلات را نیز می‌تواناز مسائل و مشکلات مد نظر این پژوهش بیان کرد.در این تحقیق با استفاده از مطالعات تطبیقی بافت‌های مختلف شهری از نظر میزان انطباق با اصول منشور نوشهر گرایی بررسی شد که نتایج حاکی از انطباق حداکثری بافت‌های طراحی شده(محله زعفرانیه)با اصول منشور نوشهر گرایی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of Different Urban Texture Based on Charter of New Urbanism Case Study:Tabriz City

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Ghasemi
  • M.A. Salekimaleki
  • M.R. Poormohammadi
چکیده [English]

Introduction
New urbanism as a movement in designing and city planning was first born in the United States of America in 1980s. New urbanism movement is a reaction against horizontal growth at city suburbs and its unstable costs. Rapid increase in city population, supplying service and providing facilities for them are of those greatest challenges faced by city planners. so paying much more attention to different aspects of urban development and planning a suitable developmental one has been more important. The existence of some essential factors such as the successful experience of new urbanism among cities of differeant countries, emphasis on city identity and returning to traditions, emphasis on city sustainability, following environmental issues and lots of other traits of new urbanism lead city planners to use it in reconstruction and improvement of city fabrics and provision of city developmental plan.
Existence of old and marginal urban fabrics, influx of traditional and modern thoughts, imitations in provision of city development schemes and new urban fabrics constructing has made a lot of problems in Tabriz city. Such problems proves the criteria of reviewing in provision of urban developmental plans and provision of traditional and historical fabrics improvement plans based on new theories of urbanism relied on sustainable development, return to traditions, revival of neighborhood structure and urban identity such as new urbanism.
Theoretical basis:
Since new urbanism has emerged in recent decades all its related issues are in its first steps .in most research and resource of new urbanism just paid attention to general principles and not details. By studying different and various recourses we can express the following principles which some of the criteria are achieved based on the writers’ research that will be discussed in later principle studies.
We can divide new urbanism index into three general groups that each index can be divided into different standards and sub-indexes.
1- Physical index which is consisted of mixed-use standards, preserve and enhance of public green spaces and paying attention to local and environmental conditions.
2- Traffic and Transport Index which is consisted of continuous measurements of traffic network, ability to walk and emphasis on public transport.
3-housing index and urban fabric which is consisted of varied housing standards, preserve and enhance of traditional structures , increase in fabric density, attention to historical monuments value and architectural quality.
Discussion
To study the compatibility rate of Tabriz city fabrics with the mentioned general three-principle of new urbanism, we created a four-level scoring rate according to the compatibility rate. This study is based on compatibility and relativity and the closeness to the ideal standard indicates a greater score which all are different from 1 to 4. Score 4 shows the highest compatibility rate and score 1 show the lowest compatibility rate.
Because this movement imported to Iran’s urbanism system and there are lots of difference between their cultural, political and economic conditions and mainly Tabriz city in comparison to the western countries, we can say that none of the city neighborhoods had full compliance with the principles of the movement and none of them followed its standards. In this case the only way to study is through finding compatibility rate otherwise we have to score all the neighborhoods 1 and even incompatible. So in this case it’s impossible to announce the exact compatibility rate in the form of yes-no response and we can’t express compliance or non-compliance of the neighborhood to the determined standards. Each fabric is evaluated based on the presented criteria and sub-criteria and gets one score in comparison to each criterion and the total score and in fact the compatibility rate showed by sum of the scores.
Conclusion
The Study of triple indices indicates significant differences in terms of compliance with the principles of new urbanism in urban fabrics of Tabriz city. In this study the Zafaranieh 4 neighborhood with the score of 25 shows the most compatibility And the Rezvanshahr 3 with the score of 10.5 has the least compatibility with the principles of this approach. The Shahnaz neighborhood took the score of 16.5 and The Magsudiyeh neighborhood took the score of 18.
As a general conclusion because new urbanism idea is a recent one and special planning system of this movement, new and designed regular fabrics are more compatible to this movement. In this study the Zafaranieh 4 neighborhood (which is a sample of regular fabric) shows the most compatibility with the principles of new urbanism at neighborhood scale. The Magsudiyeh neighborhood (a sample of traditional fabric), the Shahnaz neighborhood (a sample of historical fabric) took second and third place of compatibility respectively. And the Rezvanshahr 3 (Suburban fabric) has the least compatibility with the principles of this approach.

Suggestions:
The following suggestions are offered based on research subject and studied indexes:
1- Tendency toward new ideas such as new urbanism and neighborhood-based in urban planning and preparation of urban development plans.
2- Following per capita standards of urban land application and avoidance of centralization on spatial distribution of application at level of urban developmental planning and level of implementation by urban organs such as municipals.
3-Binding sites within the network of streets in suburban areas to major networks to increase community access to service locations.
4. Paying attention to different patterns of housing in supplying urban development projects and avoid of designing repetitive patterns and following various housing patterns by municipals.
According to legal structures and the planning process and preparation of urban development plans in most of the proposals have been considered in the preparation of urban development plans then carried out by administrative bodies such as city councils.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • new urbanism
  • publication of new urbanism
  • urban developmental projects
  • Urban texture