عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Principles of infill buildings formation in historical urban fabrics,
according to international declarations and charters
M.Masoud, H.R.Beigzadeh Shahraki
Historic monuments in each land are the documents of its identity. Here the architecture and urbanism works have significant role in transmission of cultures and ideologies. Historical fabrics and in the better expression, historical cities were formed with consequent of varied and multipe factors and this makes them unique and non-reproducible. However, in our country (Iran) in recent decades, the historical cities seriously damaged because of different factors including new infill constructions. Therefore it is necessary for the formation process of new buildings in historical cities that be considered and guided in the right direction to conserve what remains. In this field, international documents as a global convergence and consensus on the conservation of cultural and historical heritages can be referred to extract useful guidelines for Iranian historical urban fabrics. This paper is an attempt in this direction.
2. Theoretical bases
This paper is organized in special view to three topics first: the concept and action of infill buildings, second: the concept and value of historical urban fabrics, third: attention to the context of new architectural work. Thus the formation of new infill building in historical fabric is as replacement new architectural word in a strong and valuable existent historical "text" or "context". Naturally this requires special sensitivity and precision. This paper follows the sensitivity and precision that above mentioned, referring to international declarations and charters which are the result of consensus of experts from different countries, and obtains the intervention guidelines from them.
Contents of international agreements, declarations and charters have different approaches to historical monuments and urban fabrics, but their overall process shows a gradual focus on context instead of building and then importance of historical city as a whole. Many of international related documents have a special attention to features of historic townscape of old cities and their historical urban fabrics. This matter and the importance of maintaining the environment around monuments and their panoramic views, have create the principles and criteria for interventions such as new construction near historical monuments. These principles and criteria could be explained in attention to values and historical unique character of cities, the harmony and companionship of old and new elements together as well as special attention to the context of the new buildings.
Despite a wide range of rules and criteria discussed in international decisions for intervention in historical contexts and cities and diversity of their approaches, but the most important results achieved in surveying of such documents related to infill buildings in historical urban fabrics, can be can be found in a few cases with greater emphasis are:
4.1. Special attention to the "context" as an active, effective and non-passive ground
4.2. Special efforts to the "continuity" of place, architecture and city identity in the context of time (history)
4.3. Attention to new buildings in coordination with historical monuments of an old city and their "integrity"
4.4. Inspiration of old patterns of native and vernacular architecture in each of the new creations without requiring imitation
4.5. Special efforts to improve the quality and absorption of life in historical cities
Considering the importance of preserving the remained small parts of historic cities of Iran, referring to international viewpoints, it is suggested that the principled conservation of historic cities should be placed in plan of action. Particularly, the principles and criteria which extracted from international documents for guidance of new infill buildings â that are necessary for continuing the life in historical urban fabrics â be operated and performed.
5.1. Trying to registering valuable urban fabrics in national or international heritage list
5.2. The necessity of codification a national charter for conservation of historical cities
5.3. Adapting of theory and practice in new infill buildings in historical contexts
5.4. Avoiding any non-qualified or huge-scale infill developments in historical fabrics
5.5. Studying and use the methods and experiences of developed countries without any necessity of imitation.