مکانیابی پارکینگ طبقاتی چندمنظوره با تأکید بر کاربری پناهگاه با استفاده از GIS و روش تصمیم‌گیری چندمعیارهAHP (مطالعه موردی: منطقه 14 شهرداری تهران)

نویسندگان

دانشگاه مالک اشتر

چکیده

حفظ جان غیر نظامیان از جمله مهم‌ترین اهداف مسئولان کشور در کاهش آسیب‌پذیری حوزه‌ی نیروی انسانی بوده و ایجاد فضاهای امن و پناهگاهی در زمره‌ی اقدامات رسیدن به این هدف می‌باشد. با توجه به هزینه‌ بالای احداث فضاهای امن پناهگاهی، احداث فضاهای چند منظوره به نحوی که در زمان صلح به کاربری خاصی تعلق یابند و در زمان بحران به عنوان فضای امن پناهگاهی استفاده شوند، امری منطقی، مقرون به‌صرفه و دارای اهمیت است. هدف از انجام این تحقیق، مکانیابی یک کاربری عمومی مورد نیاز در منطقه 14 تهران است که قابلیت بهره‌برداری به عنوان فضای امن را دارا باشد. به همین منظور با اعمال نظر کارشناسان در محدود مورد مطالعه، پارکینگ طبقاتی به عنوان کاربری عمومی شهری انتخاب شد. تبیین شاخص‌های مکانیابی نیز بر این اساس قرار گرفت که کاربری پارکینگ طبقاتی علاوه بر ارزش کارکردی در زمان صلح، در زمان بحران به عنوان فضای امن پناهگاهی قابلیت بهره‌برداری را داشته باشد. این مهم از طریق بررسی تحلیلی تحقیقات گذشته و دریافت نظرات کارشناسان انجام پذیرفت. در ادامه با روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی(AHP) و وزن دهی به شاخص‌های مکانیابی از طریق پرسشنامه، لایه‌های مربوط به هر شاخص در نرم‌افزار GIS تشکیل و سپس با روی هم اندازی لایه‌ها مکان نهایی شناسایی و معرفی گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Multifunctional parking locating with an emphasis on shelter by using GIS and multi criteria decision making method (AHP) (case study: zone 14 of tehran city municipal)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Araghizadeh
  • M.H. Ataee
  • M. Ghazanfari
Malek Ashtar University
چکیده [English]

   Extended Abstract  Introduction Protecting civilians is one of the
most important goals in passive defense in order to mitigate vulnerabilities.
Building safe spaces and shelters is an action to achieve this goal. According
to expensive costs of building such structures, if they are simply built for
military crises time, it will not be logical and economic so that there will be
problems to build them. Hence, it is logical, economic and prevalent to build
multifunctional spaces so that in peace time they have normal functions and in
crisis time they turn into a shelter or a safe space. Appropriate
site-selecting of public urban spaces such as parking are strongly needed in
the city of Tehran. According to each zone requirements and considering passive
defense principles we could have multifunctional spaces as parking-shelters
during the war.The purpose of this research is the
site selecting of a multifunctional Requirement in zone 14 of Tehran
city municipal with the ArcGIS software that conducted by Needs
assessment would be a
parking in peace and it will be a shelter in times of crisis. In this research
we have tried to create layers
corresponding to each index in GIS software by
the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
and weighting to the Positioning index.
The final location
is detected and introduced by the overlaid layers.       Theoretical bases 2-1- ParkingA parking-which is one of the three main urban transportation
elements- is a predetermined area to stop a vehicle. Most of the heavy and
light vehicles must be stopped somewhere at the end of every trip. Even in the
districts in which public transportation exists, personal vehicles are
considered the best means of transport. Such being the case, parking demands
are increasing (Behbahani et al, 2005:199).  2-2- DefiladeA defilade is an enclosed complex which provides its residents and
or internal equipments an acceptable protection against various war weapon
facilities. This enclosed area is linked to the other shelters by a couple of
exit and entrance passages and it contains special defilade requirements
(Hashemi, Fesharaki, and Gharabaghi, 2011: 152). 2-3- Passive DefenseIn this section, some definitions of passive defense extracted from
different sources are presented: A: Passive defense is a series of unarmed actions that enhances the
prevention power, mitigates the vulnerabilities, keeps the urgent activities
up, improves the national resistibility, and facilitates the crisis management
(The Regime General Policies in the field of passive defense, 2010). 2-4- Multifunctional spacesMultifunctional spaces are the areas that have the potentiality to
exploit different functions of a certain space in a normal and critical
condition influenced by enemies threats (the 21st matter of the
national building regulations, 2012: 9).  2-5- Location Selecting the best and the most suitable spot as well as the military
and civilians settlement district by which all the activities including
sensitive military centers can be fulfilled is called locating/ location
(Hashemi, Fesharaki, and Mahmoudzadeh, 2012: 423).  DiscussionThe zone 14 of Tehran is highly populated. Specifying the function
of the required spaces in peace time depends on the existing gaps and needs of
the zone under study so as to be a justifiable plan in terms of economics and
in case of any type of establishment. Here are some of the main functions applied in multifunctional
defilades in peace time: subway stations, storey parking, supermarkets, road
tunnels, educational centers and exhibition galleries (Hashemi, Fesharaki, and
Gharabaghi, 2011: 162-169). To specify a proper function for the zone under
study, the current research has heard the experts’ voice and let them score the
criteria. The results are clearly illustrated in table 3. Table 5 shows the quantitative amounts of the utility criteria.
Since such criteria are unbalanced and contain different efficiency, they are
shown in table 6. Finally, with respect to the fact that the scores obtained
from subway and storey parking utilities are higher than the other ones in zone
14, the storey parking type for the peace time and the defilade type for the
crisis time were selected. Such a selection with safe capacity makes us consider precise
location criteria. At first, location criteria of the storey parking and then
the defilades in zone 14 were analyzed. Establishing large (multi-storey) parking in city centers which
often lacks suitable space for keeping the vehicles is highly expensive due to
ground costs and limitations. Table 7 shows some significant criteria for the location of storey
parking and safe space of defilades. The presented criteria are extracted based
on the current rules and standards. As well, they are scored and judged by the
experts in the field of passive defense urbanization. Also, some efficiencies
are given in the 4th and 5th columns for every single of
the needed criteria to be applied by the software GIS.                                                                                                                   Table
7- applied efficiencies to the main criteria for the location of parking and
defilade safe spaces  row  criteria  sub-criteria  Defilade
efficiency  Parking
efficiency  1  natural  distance
from a fault  0.08  0.14  flooding  underground
water level  2  ground  ground
cost in areas  0.06  0.12  ground
safety condition  correspondence
with the comprehensive plan  3  adjacency
to the rescue and service centers  clinics  0.08  0.12  Emergency
centers  fire
stations  4  optimal
distance from likely goals  0.14  ----  5  distance
from travel agencies  educational,
commercial, administrative, and tourist centers, parks, hospitals, clinics  ----  0.21  6  adjacency
to streets  streets
with different service levels, fines and widths  ----  0.15  7  distance
from dangerous establishments  establishments
connected to dangerous substance  ----  0.15  8  accessibility
condition  suitable
passages to lead human flow  0.13  ----  9  optimal
utility for establishing parking  comprehensive
plan parking, ruined places, garages, green spaces can be reduced in size  ----  0.11  10  population
mass  0.09  11  accessibility
to open areas  parks
and gardens  0.05  12  climatic
conditions  rainfall
rate, wind condition, and temperature  ----  ----    ConclusionComing to
sensible decisions on various options has always been taken into account by the
experts in different fields. Multifunctional storey parking which can be
transformed into a safe defilade is one of the crucial needs of metropolitan
vulnerable cities such as Tehran whose location pattern was selected on the
municipal zone 14. This research has composed different layers of areas by
means of a place information and ranking, weighting system for the given
location utility indices to identify the settlement spot. Figure 9 shows the
desired storey parking areas in which the layers related to every single of the
aforementioned criteria are made through the software ArcGIS9.3 so that they overlay on the basis of their efficiency
illustrated in table 6. Such doing the case, the desired result of area
identification for establishing the defilade is obtained according to figure
10.Finally, based
on what was already mentioned and the result of the questionnaire concerning
proper utilities for establishing multifunctional safe storey parking, the
utilities such as ruined places,
garages, and the green spaces that can be reduced in size were taken as the
main utilities. Analyzing the extratced maps in a GIS environment, the
illustrated point in figure 11 was presented as the final multifunctional safe
storey parking settlement spot.  SuggestionsConsidering the
necessary services in different zones of a city in order to meet such needs is something inevitable. Therefore, the
researchers’ main think-worthy suggestion is emphasizing (bi) multifunctioning
different utilities of a city. The intentional man-made threats such as
military threats are among those ones which can create critical circumstances
in Tehran if they happen. In case of providing mental security for citizens
through safe spaces, the crisis severity can be reduced to a considerable amount.
Bi or multifunctioning different utilities of a city can provide the citizens
with efficient services and obviate their needs in peace time as well as
facilitating the crisis management conditions. In this respect, the following
research improvement areas can be obtained (which are classifiable into two
fields of Urbanization and Construction):  Extracting
different utility location indices potential for being transformed into safe
defilades and putting them up in city zones Presenting
potential utility design observations which can be transformed into safe spacesFeasibility
study of establishing the proposed utilities in the extracted points and
designing them 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • site
  • site-selection
  • Selection
  • Parking
  • shelter
  • AHP
  • GIS