تحلیلی بر ویژگی‌های اجتماعی– اقتصادی ساکنان مسکن مهر، مطالعه موردی شهرهای شیراز، فیروزآباد، آباده، نورآباد و استهبان

نویسندگان

چکیده

 بر اساس قانون اساسی کشور، داشتن
مسکن مناسب، حق هر فرد و خانوار ایرانی است و رسالت اقتصاد کشور، تأمین نیازهای
اساسی مسکن، خوراک، پوشاک، بهداشت و درمان، آموزش و پرورش و امکانات لازم در جهت
تشکیل خانواده برای همگان است. در این راستا، جهت تأمین مسکن اقشار کم­درآمد و تنظیم
بازار عرضه و تقاضای مسکن، احداث نوعی مسکن ویژه؛ با عنوان مسکن مهر از سال 1386 اجرایی
شد که بازخوردهای گسترده‌ای در عرصه‌های مختلف اجتماعی، اقتصادی و زیست محیطی به
همراه داشته است. این طرح بر بازار عرضه و تقاضای مسکن و پوشش بخشی از نیاز مسکن
گروه­های کم درآمد شهری نقش موثری ایفاء نموده است؛ لیکن به دلایل مختلف، بهره‌برداری
از پروژه‌ها با چالش‌های متعدد مواجه است این امر ضرورت تحقیق در این خصوص را
آشکار می‌سازد. این تحقیق با هدف تحلیل بخش تقاضا و همچنین بررسی ویژگی‌های
خانوارهای ساکن در مسکن مهر در سطح استان فارس و تحلیل بازتاب‌های اجتماعی ناشی از
آن ارائه شده است. برای این منظور، تعداد 384 پرسشنامه در سطح پنج شهرستان منتخب
شامل شیراز، فیروزآباد، آباده، نورآباد و استهبان به صورت تصادفی طبقه­بندی شده
تکمیل گردید و داده‌های به دست آمده با استفاده از آمار توصیفی و آزمون­های
استنباطی قیاسی تحلیل شد. نتایج نشان دهنده آن است که ساکنان مسکن مهر بیشتر از
طبقه کارگری، فاقد تحصیلات عالیه و اقشار کمتر ­برخوردار جامعه بوده و عامل هزینه
اسکان، مهمترین دلیل جابجایی برای سکونت در مسکن مهر بوده است. از سوی دیگر، تفاوت
معنی‌دار در برخورداری از شاخص‌های اجتماعی شامل همبستگی اجتماعی، مشارکت در روند
اجرای پروژه و رضایت کلی از محل سکونت در بین ساکنان شهرهای مختلف وجود دارد.
نتایج همچنین نشان دهنده تفاوت الگوی مصرف در مناطق مختلف جغرافیایی و اقلیمی
استان است. در مجموع نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش می‌تواند در برنامه‌ریزی‌های آتی
مسکن اجتماعی در سطح کشور سودمند باشد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Analysis of Social-economical Attributes of the Residences of MEHR Social Housing Projects Five Case Studies of Fars province

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Hoseini
  • M. Ghazaei
  • A. Soltani
  • S. Askari
چکیده [English]

 Extended abstract An Analysis of Socio-economic Characteristics
of the Residents of Mehr Social Housing Projects Five Case Studies of Fars
Province    Introduction
  The supply of affordable housing for every
citizen is an important governmental policy with a particular consideration of
low-income groups. This group of residents would not be able to provide
independent housing without governmental intervention. Social housing program
is regarded as an effective policy in the pursuit of justice in accessing to
proper housing in many parts of the world. The Mehr social housing program as
supportive housing and social policy has been implemented to meet the housing
needs of low-income classes since 2008 in Iranian major cities. So far, the Mehr
housing project has been influential in changing many aspects of the urban
systems, and consequently impacting on social, economic and environmental
characteristics of them. The evaluation and criticism of this policy from
different aspects to set up the goals and actions for the future planning is
essential. According to the evaluation report of the Iranian Ministry of Road
and Urbanism, by the end of 2012 Fars Province ranked the third in terms of
social housing production. And at the end of 2012, the average progress in the
implementation of housing projects in this province was reported by 80 percent.
Totally, Fars province authorities are committed to build 112 thousand units.
The structure of this paper is as follow: the first part includes the
introduction, state of the problem, the objectives of the research, and the
theoretical and conceptual background of the research. Subsequently, the method of the research and analytical
approach of the collected data are presented. Discussion and conclusions are
provided in the final section.       Theoretical
bases   Housing
is not only regarded as a physical entity for living but also as an economic
good and service. It also has a social role including a set of services covering
the life. Housing as a residential environment can be studied from different
perspectives. Housing is a social creature which provides most of the needs a
family. Each housing unit is a representative of social and cultural identity.
A suitable housing environment provides a place for rest and makes people mentally
ready for the next activity. Social housing is equal to affordable rental
property which is planned for low and middle income groups. This type of
housing is administrated by the government, non-beneficial agents or
cooperation estates of both of them in order to providing affordable shelter.
Social housing may provide only basic and primary needs, while other aspects of
life such as psychological, social, aesthetics, are neglected. Three dimensions
of sustainability which should be considered for housing include: economic,
social and environmental. In this paper, only economic and social aspects are
investigated.     Discussion
  The importance of investigating the
socio-economic characteristics of households arises when housing planning is
conducted. In this way, those who are from low-income group should be carefully
considered because of their lower economic power to afford proper housing. In
fact, most of low-income households need financial support and subsidy to
improve their status of housing. The primary results from the analysis of 384 questionnaires
collected in five sampled cities are below: the average household size is
different among the residents of five cities and ranges between three and five.
This difference shows the necessity of different housing planning approaches in
different geographical regions. The ratio of household to housing unit is close
to one for all sampled cities. For most of cases, men are the head of
household. The average age of household age is about 36 years and the results
confirm that owning a property takes longer time in bigger cities due to higher
price of housing in such cities. About 30 percent of those who are the head of
household have an academic degree therefore, social housing is welcomed by
this group as well. The job type of the head of households is a mix of
white-collar and blue-collar jobs however, the later one has a greater share.
Around two-third of residents have had no earlier living experience in
apartments, rather they were in single family houses. Also most of them used to
live in rental houses. This is the main reason to leaving former place and
moving in to social housing. Interestingly, rental cost is the most important
factor which encouraged the residents to move out from their former places.
Other causes such as getting closer to workplace are in second priority. In
regard to income level, the majority of the residents of Mehr housing projects
belong to low-income groups who need financial support to afford housing. The
government has been successful in providing about 30 percent of housing cost. Most
of residents’ previous places of living were not in good and safe conditions
therefore, Mehr housing projects provide them an opportunity to live in better
situation. For further analysis of collected data, some statistical tests
including Smirnov-Kolmogrov, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and LSD were used.     Conclusion
  Because of large geographical extent of Mehr
housing projects, it is required to investigate different dimensions of this
housing supply program. This paper is about the social and economic impacts of Mehr
housing residents throughout Fras province. For this purpose, five cities
including Shiraz, Firouzabad, Abadeh, Noorabad, and Estahban which are located
in different climatic and geographic situations were selected and 384
households were surveyed.  Some of interesting findings of the returned
questionnaires which resulted from descriptive and analytical methods include:
According to ANOVA result, Noorabad and Firouzabad are two cities with higher
level of social coherence. This is probably due to the greater homogeneity of
ethical groups live in these cities. Participation level was found highest for
Shiraz residents. This is probably due to having had better access to the
information of housing projects and better involvement. In terms of overall satisfaction level,
residents of Estahban were found to have greater level, due to limited number
of residents who lived in apartments with higher quality.    Suggestions
  Mehr housing policy based on mass affordable
housing by reducing the cost of land and offering supplementary funds is
suggested in order to controlling the housing market. The review of the
literature showed that using tax policy is necessary in addition to increasing
housing supply. Therefore, supporting of housing production and supply should
be associated with controlling for price and inflation in housing market. Enabling
the capacity of all professional companies and non-governmental agencies in
housing supply can improve the quality of construction thus giving more
opportunity to the government for controlling the market. The satisfaction
level of residents would increase if daily land use services get improved
within Mehr housing projects. Furthermore, the result of this research can be
used for future procedures of social housing planning in order to emphasizing
local and cultural needs. This research can be extended by including further
dimensions of the social and economic consequents of social housing.    Key words Mehr
Social Housing, Social Impact, Comparative Analysis, Fars Province.      

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Social housing
  • Social Consequences
  • comparative analysis
  • Fars Province