ارزیابی اثرات مجتمع صنایع چوب و کاغذ مازندران بر توسعه نواحی روستایی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

صنایع چوب و کاغذ مازندران که در سال 1376 فعالیت خود را شروع کرده است، دارای اثرات مثبت و منفی مختلفی بر نواحی روستایی پیرامون بوده است. با توجه به اینکه تاکنون اثرات بر شمرده شده به صورت علمی و دقیق مورد مطالعه قرار نگرفته است، تحقیق حاضر به شناسایی و ارزیابی اثرات این مجتمع بر نواحی روستایی پیرامون می‌پردازد. تحقیق حاضر به لحاظ هدف کاربردی که از طریق پیمایش پرسشنامه‌ای اجرا شده است. جامعه آماری این تحقیق شامل 2625 نفر از سرپرستان خانوار در 18 روستای همجوار مجتمع بود که بر مبنای جدول کرجسی و مورگان تعداد 350 نفر به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. روایی پرسشنامه بر پایه نظرات گروهی از کارشناسان و اعضای هیات علمی تأیید شد. پایایی پرسشنامه نیز با محاسبه‌ی ضریب آلفای کرونباخ (68/0، 88/0، 86/0، 92/0) برای چهار نوع اثر اقتصادی، اجتماعی، کالبدی و محیط‌زیستی محرز گردید. نتایج اولویت‌بندی گویه‌های مربوط به اثرات فیزیکی-کالبدی مجتمع نشان داد که، «گسترش امکانات و خدمات آموزشی در روستا» از نظر روستاییان دارای اهمیت بیشتری بوده است. همچنین «افزایش تمایل روستاییان به کار در مجتمع» جزء مهمترین اثرات اجتماعی، «افزایش فرصت‌های اشتغال در روستا» از مهمترین اثرات اقتصادی و «کاهش مراتع و مکان‌های چرای دام» نیز جزء مهمترین اثرات محیط زیستی مجتمع بر روستاهای همجوار بوده است. نتایج آزمون t تک‌نمونه‌ای نشان داد که کلیه اثرات چهارگانه کمتر از مقدار میانگین است. یافته‌های تحلیل عاملی نیز نشان داد که شش عامل با نام‌های «منافع اجتماعی»، «منافع زیرساختی»، «هزینه‌های محیط زیستی»، «منافع اقتصادی»، «منافع رفاهی-خدماتی» و «هزینه‌های اجتماعی» توانستند 804/68 درصد واریانس تغییرات مربوط به اثرات مجتمع صنایع چوب وکاغذ بر نواحی روستایی اطراف را تبیین کنند. نتایج این قسمت نشان داد که «منافع اجتماعی»، «منافع زیرساختی»، «منافع اقتصادی» و «منافع رفاهی-خدماتی» مربوط به جنبه‌های مثبت تأثیر مجتمع و «هزینه‌های محیط زیستی» و «هزینه‌های اجتماعی» نیز جنبه‌های منفی تأثیر مجتمع بر نواحی روستایی پیرامون را نشان می‌دهند. همچنین از مجموع کل اثرات، 081/72 درصد مربوط به اثرات مثبت و 919/27 درصد مربوط به اثرات منفی بوده است، که این امر بیانگر این بود که اثرات مثبت بسیار بیشتر از اثرات منفی بوده است. به علاوه نتایج آزمون‌های مقایسه میانگین نیز نشان داد که گروه‌های مختلف پاسخگویان نیز ارزیابی یکسانی از اثرات مثبت و منفی مجتمع نداشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the Impacts of Mazandaran Wood and Paper Industries on rural areas development

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Qadami Amraei
  • A. Sharifzadeh
  • Gh. Abdollahzadeh
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract
Introduction
Industrial development strategies which presented in 1950s, is one of most popular strategy to increase the development level of undeveloped regions. In fact development of industrial pole which include large urban, industrial areas and large companies can become a growth center for economic activities and encourage growth in periphery areas. Accordingly, Mazandaran wood and paper industries initiate their activities in 1997 have had positive and negative impacts on periphery rural areas. Since previous study ignored the investigation such impacts, current research aimed to assess the economic, social, environmental and physical impacts of Mazandaran’s “wood and paper complex” on periphery rural areas.
Research method
This applied research was carried out by questionnaire survey method. The statistical population consisted of 2625 heads of household in 18 villages around the “wood and paper complex” which 350 samples randomly selected by Krejcie and Morgan table. Content validity of the research questionnaire was confirmed by a panel experts and faculty members. Calculated Coronbach Alpha coefficients as indication of questionnaire’s reliability were as equal to 0.68, 0.88, 0.86, and 0.92 respectively for economical, social, physical and environmental impacts. Using SPSS and EXCEL software, the gathered data was analyzed.
Theoretical framework
Theory growth pole and growth center formulated and developed by many scientists. According to the concept of growth pole and growth center, public investment programs will have maximum effects on a regional growth if concentrated in a small number of favorable locations in regional development policy. Growth pole and growth center concept has become popular because of its orientation towards ‘dynamic industry’ (i.e. dynamic propulsive firm & leading propulsive industry) ‘polarization and agglomeration’ (inter-industry linkages of external economies) and the promise of ensuring “spread effects”. One of the important characteristics of a leading propulsive industry or growth centers is different effects on periphery areas. Such effects are of two types.
 Backwash effects: These include all the negative effects of growth centers. It promise capital, skills and people moved out of backward regions to the developed regions, leaving the latter poor and dry. So growth centers can’t cause of development for periphery areas.
 Spread effects: These include all the positive effects of growth centers. These spread effects were those which gave expansionary momentum from the centers of economic expansion to other regions, and were centrifugal in nature. So growth centers can cause of development for periphery areas and the main cause of economic forwardness and regional development has been the strong spread effects and the weak backwash effects
Current paper aimed to investigate backwash and forward effects of wood and paper industries in Mazandaran province.
Results
Results of prioritizing items of physical impacts showed that "development of educational services and facilities in rural areas was most important according to rural people viewpoint. Also “increasing tendency of rural people to work in wood and paper complex” was most social impacts, "increasing employment opportunities in rural areas” was most economical impacts and “reduce in rangeland" was most environmental impacts of “wood and paper complex” on periphery rural areas. The results of on-sample t-test showed that all the four impacts of Mazandaran wood and paper industries were lower than means. Findings of factor analyzing indicated that six factors namely “social benefits”, “infrastructural benefits”, “environmental costs”, “economic benefits”, “recreational-services benefits” and “social costs” explained %68.804 of the total variances for impacts of “wood and paper complex” on around rural areas. Current results revealed that “social benefits”, “infrastructural benefits”, “economic benefits”, “recreational-services benefits” indicated positive effects and “environmental costs”, and “social costs” imply negative effects of “wood and paper complex” on periphery rural areas. Moreover %72.081 of total effects was positive and %27.919 was negative effects which revealed that positive effects were more than negative effects. Moreover the results of compare mean tests showed that different groups of rural people didn’t have consensus on the positive and negative impacts.
Recommendations
 Establish training centers inside of complex to train local people and increase its skill and providing them as expert workers.
 Management with cooperation of rural council can introduce activity of complex and attain more support from local community.
 Transforming management of training, sport and health center to local people and improve its attitude and satisfaction.
 Using infiltration technology or finding location explosion can decrease waste and increase of environmental protection.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • rural development
  • industrial development
  • wood and paper complex
  • Mazandaran Province