عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Industrial development strategies which presented in 1950s, is one of most popular strategy to increase the development level of undeveloped regions. In fact development of industrial pole which include large urban, industrial areas and large companies can become a growth center for economic activities and encourage growth in periphery areas. Accordingly, Mazandaran wood and paper industries initiate their activities in 1997 have had positive and negative impacts on periphery rural areas. Since previous study ignored the investigation such impacts, current research aimed to assess the economic, social, environmental and physical impacts of Mazandaranâs âwood and paper complexâ on periphery rural areas.
This applied research was carried out by questionnaire survey method. The statistical population consisted of 2625 heads of household in 18 villages around the âwood and paper complexâ which 350 samples randomly selected by Krejcie and Morgan table. Content validity of the research questionnaire was confirmed by a panel experts and faculty members. Calculated Coronbach Alpha coefficients as indication of questionnaireâs reliability were as equal to 0.68, 0.88, 0.86, and 0.92 respectively for economical, social, physical and environmental impacts. Using SPSS and EXCEL software, the gathered data was analyzed.
Theory growth pole and growth center formulated and developed by many scientists. According to the concept of growth pole and growth center, public investment programs will have maximum effects on a regional growth if concentrated in a small number of favorable locations in regional development policy. Growth pole and growth center concept has become popular because of its orientation towards âdynamic industryâ (i.e. dynamic propulsive firm & leading propulsive industry) âpolarization and agglomerationâ (inter-industry linkages of external economies) and the promise of ensuring âspread effectsâ. One of the important characteristics of a leading propulsive industry or growth centers is different effects on periphery areas. Such effects are of two types.
ï§ Backwash effects: These include all the negative effects of growth centers. It promise capital, skills and people moved out of backward regions to the developed regions, leaving the latter poor and dry. So growth centers canât cause of development for periphery areas.
ï§ Spread effects: These include all the positive effects of growth centers. These spread effects were those which gave expansionary momentum from the centers of economic expansion to other regions, and were centrifugal in nature. So growth centers can cause of development for periphery areas and the main cause of economic forwardness and regional development has been the strong spread effects and the weak backwash effects
Current paper aimed to investigate backwash and forward effects of wood and paper industries in Mazandaran province.
Results of prioritizing items of physical impacts showed that "development of educational services and facilities in rural areas was most important according to rural people viewpoint. Also âincreasing tendency of rural people to work in wood and paper complexâ was most social impacts, "increasing employment opportunities in rural areasâ was most economical impacts and âreduce in rangeland" was most environmental impacts of âwood and paper complexâ on periphery rural areas. The results of on-sample t-test showed that all the four impacts of Mazandaran wood and paper industries were lower than means. Findings of factor analyzing indicated that six factors namely âsocial benefitsâ, âinfrastructural benefitsâ, âenvironmental costsâ, âeconomic benefitsâ, ârecreational-services benefitsâ and âsocial costsâ explained %68.804 of the total variances for impacts of âwood and paper complexâ on around rural areas. Current results revealed that âsocial benefitsâ, âinfrastructural benefitsâ, âeconomic benefitsâ, ârecreational-services benefitsâ indicated positive effects and âenvironmental costsâ, and âsocial costsâ imply negative effects of âwood and paper complexâ on periphery rural areas. Moreover %72.081 of total effects was positive and %27.919 was negative effects which revealed that positive effects were more than negative effects. Moreover the results of compare mean tests showed that different groups of rural people didnât have consensus on the positive and negative impacts.
ï§ Establish training centers inside of complex to train local people and increase its skill and providing them as expert workers.
ï§ Management with cooperation of rural council can introduce activity of complex and attain more support from local community.
ï§ Transforming management of training, sport and health center to local people and improve its attitude and satisfaction.
ï§ Using infiltration technology or finding location explosion can decrease waste and increase of environmental protection.