سنجش شاخص های کیفیت زندگی شهری از دیدگاه شهروندان (مطالعه ی موردی: شهر آمل)

نویسندگان

دانشگاه مازندران

چکیده

شاخص‌های کیفیت زندگی شهری به منظور اندازه گیری درجه‌ای از محیط که برای زیست انسان مطلوب باشد، مورد سنجش قرار می‌گیرند. امروزه رشد سریع شهرها علاوه بر سلامت اجتماعی، بر کیفیت محیطی و اقتصادی شهروندان نیز تاثیر منفی گذارده و موجب کاهش کیفیت زندگی آنان گردیده است. شهر آمل در استان مازندران نیز به دلیل موقعیت‌های اقتصادی و اجتماعی و وجود امکانات بیشتر زندگی، دارای تمرکز جمعیتی بالا نسبت به شهرهای مجاور خود بوده که با چالش‌های مهمی در زمینه تخریب فیزیکی و محیطی, محرومیت اجتماع، ناامنی، بیکاری، ترافیک و ... روبرو است که این مشکلات موجب کاهش کیفیت زندگی در این شهر شده است. این تحقیق با هدف تعیین وضعیت شاخص کیفیت زندگی شهر آمل در ابعاد اجتماعی، اقتصادی و کالبدی و تحلیلتأثیرفاکتورهایاجتماعی- اقتصادیبرکیفیت زندگی شهروندان آمل بوده است. روش تحقیق از نوع توصیفی - تحلیلی و ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها در آن، پرسشنامه‌هایی توزیع شده میان سرپرستان خانوارهای شهرآمل به تعداد 350 عدد بوده است. تعداد پرسشنامه‌ها از طریق فرمول کوکران بدست آمده است. جهت تحلیل آماری داده‌های گردآوری شده از نرم افزارSPSS و از روش‌های آماری از قبیل آزمون T تک نمونه‌ای ، آزمون کای اسکوئر یکطرفه، همبستگی اسپیرمن و فی و کرامر استفاده گردید. نتایج آزمون‌ها نشان می دهدکه کیفیت کلی زندگی در شهر آمل با میانگین 02/3 وضعیت متوسط رو به بالا داشته است و در این میان رضایت شهروندان از عوامل اجتماعی با میانگین17/3، عوامل محیطی (کالبدی) با میانگین13/3 و کیفیت اقتصادی با میانگین 05/3 بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation ofquality of city life in view of citizen (Case study: Amol city)

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Khademi
  • E. Jokar sarhangi
mazandaran un
چکیده [English]

Evaluation ofquality of city life in view of citizen (Case study: Amol city)

1-Introduction
City areas are the main centers of economical, social and political growth in every country. Today in the areas city,study quality of city life is one of the most important subjects of urban studies that it involves components of social, environmental, and economical(Falahat,2008,10).
Iran cities which under the influence of Iranian and Islamic culture acted a as regulated whole on local principle its old system has gone under stagnancy in early 13th solar century whith its joining to the global capitalism system and the arrival of mechanical technology so a kind of social-economical relation different from the past has been made in the old city which is not in accordance whith city-life and modern social-economical spleen dour. As a result, the purpose of this study is to answer the main question of the study that it is based on the condition of life quality indicator and weakness and intensity of each of their triple dimensions in the Amol city. Amol is one of the oldest cities of Mazandaran province. Method of the present study has been descriptive-analytical and gathering data was based on questionnaires that it has been distributed among areas of this city and the questionnaires was in accordance withpopulation who lived in each of the areas. Its Statistical population was included 350 households in Amol city which was randomly selected simple for studying. The Cochran formula was used to determine sample size, and finally the SPSS software and Statistical methods such as the Spearman correlation a Chi square test were used in order to analyze gathered data.

2- Theoretical bases
Quality of city life is one of the most important subjects of urban studies that it involves components of social, environmental, and economical. Attending to these indicators is increasing, because of their important role in management, town planning, and in general determination of viability of cities. which have demonstrated themselves as the most attractive areas for creating wealth, empoloyment, creativity and innovation. But these areas face fundamental challenges in the field of physical and environmental destructions social degradation, chaos, unemployment, lack of dwelling and traffic which these problems dramatically decrease city-life quality. However, policy-makers and programmers on national and international level emphasize on city qualities for the improvement of human life quality. Therefore, to salve the problems of burgess and the improvement of his life qualities, a concept with the title of life quality was set forth for consideration and research.

3– Discussion
In this study, the neighborhoods and subjects were studied through random sampling.Each questionnaire was given the neighborhoods according to the size and population of them.Also,it is placed In among of the selected neighborhoods of worn tissue and new tissue, which is distributed among them.Questions in the questionnaire were explained in the social, physical and economic, and in the form of a 5-choice. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used in the internal reliability of the questionnaire.The validity of the questionnaire was obtained 0/75 indicating the internal consistency of the questionnaire.Analysis of data from Spss software testing Spearman correlation, Phi and Cramer and chi-square test check for data analysis and T-test each sample to evaluate the difference between the average theoretical study (figure 3) and the mean responses is selected to each of questions.
These tests show that urban in terms of indicator of life quality (Average3.02) is uper than average level in where citizens were peevish for economical situation(Average3.05) than others components,social situation (Average3.17) and Physical situation (Average 3.13). Also in thisstudy, areas of Paeenbazar,areas Niaki ,and Chaksar show more uncomfortable condition than others areas, in field of social health, functional, and economical condition, respectively.

4– Conclusion
Results show that level of social quality in triple components of life quality in the Amol city has an average value that is equal to 3/17 and it has higher value than other indices. Also, average value of Environmental and physical factors is 3/13 and economical quality has average value of 3/05.Theses average values have shown a higher quality than mean value. This means citizens have a relative satisfaction for quality of life in the Amol city.These results led to reject the hypothesis that the lack of quality of life in the Amol city and show that economical factors have less quality than others factors. Also, studies in the city show that factors such as age and duration of stay in the neighborhood are more effective in level of social health of citizens.The most important advantage of social health in the Amol city is related to Interested citizens to Amol and their trend to live and stay in their neighborhood. The most important disadvantage of social health in the Amol city is related to low tendency of citizens to communication with their neighborhood and Concerns about the prevalence of drug use in the neighborhood.Moreover, studies show that variable of income level with four times generation of significant relationship has the most effectiveness of citizens satisfaction about environmental quality.Other results, in the Amol city, show that rely on cash subsidies and concerns about its remove have the most effectiveness in increase of level of citizen’s satisfaction about economical condition of households.In index of economical in Amol city, satisfaction of the residents of the state of cleanliness in the neighborhood is maximum and this shows satisfaction of the most citizen about this index .

5– Suggestions
In this city, the most grievances of citizens are related to physical quality of the neighborhood and also status of surface water disposal repulse, especially when it is rainy.There is this problem in all northern cities and managers and urban planners of the Amol city must solve it.The other physical problem of the Amol city is citizen dissatisfaction about status of landscape in the neighborhoods. In other study (Khademi,2011), solutions of this problem, locating and arranging suitable of parks of the Amol city, and small library inside the parks, in were presented. The solution of this problem leads to reduce consumption of narcotics among youth.Implementation plan, organize and revitalize old neighborhoods of the Amol city are reasons for increasing life quality in the Amol city. Results of other study(Khademi2013) has showed that the situation of of worn tissue of the Amol city is caused reduction of level of life quality in the city.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental and Economic quality
  • Quality of Life
  • Social Health
  • Environmental and Economic quality
  • Amol city