عنوان مقاله [English]
Defining and Measuring Urban Governance Indicators Using Fuzzy AHP
Urban governance is new structure in the process of urban management that changed the centralized and traditional forms of management in cities and challenged its theoretical base. The results of this new approach in the integration of civil society, urban management and private sectors to deal with urban issues are salient. This approach looks at the system and all sectors of society as a unified body, so it can be very useful in urban management topic. Rapid population increase, that coupled with rapid urban development and urbanization, facing policy makers, officialâs managers and municipal system with many problems in different countries. Naturally, a huge wave of urbanization has made urban problems such poverty, migration, lack of resources, services and infrastructure, urban congestion and pollution which are significant challenges for urban management and also has hampered economic, social and cultural processes in cities. Nowadays, urban management facing with new challenges. These challenges proof the necessity of change in the structure of city management. Traditional approaches to management and planning in process of society's problems solution are not effective. Urban governance has appeared as a new strategy in process of urban management in the late 90's, after the emergence of these events and new trends in urban society. Accordingly, this study seeks to survey the challenge of urban governance and its dimensions in a country like Iran. .This study with descriptive and analytical method, try to analysis how to apply the principles governing of urban governance. To estimate this purpose, four samples of this new approach as transparency, accountability, efficiency and flexibility with several sub-indices were analyzed in fuzzy AHP algorithm, under expert opinions
2- Theoretical bases
After urban management attitudes, economic and political views and scientific development and planning concept began to change, urban governance has considered in urban management process. The evolution of urban management approaches shows that flexibility, replication and accountability of government systems and acceptance of hierarchical bottom-up process are the original pressing principles are sustainable development. Literature review defining new criteriaâs related to urban governance (Cronwall and gaventa,2001). They all emphasize three main elements in the process of urban conduction system: civil society, private sector and city management bodies. Governance pattern of urban development is remembered as the participatory process by which all stakeholders including government, urban management, private sector and civil society provide the tools to solve the problems of rapid urbanization. The situation in developing countries, rapid urbanization in the continuation of traditional management approaches in cities, created conditions that necessity to strengthen local governments and public and private sector participation in urban development planning.
In fact, today it is recognized that solving the problems caused by rapid urbanization in these countries is possible by reformed traditional methods and use of new management approaches. Indentify the indicator and applying priciples is the most omportant fair in urban governance approch. Because with this indicatorse we could find the theories and view points.
One goal of this research is defining appropriate indicators for urban governance. After review the history and literature of urban governance, we selected indicators that match the Iran conditions. Because this study deals with qualitative concepts, fuzzy logic was based as a leading methodology. Then, the decision making team that contains management and urban planning experts have formed. This group were asked about their views on the criteria and sub criteriaâs of urban governance with paired comparisons. In the next step, hierarchical model has drawn and the relationship between criteriaâs and sub criteriaâs has determined. After this stage, we constitution the primary decision matrix and then fuzzy decision matrix. FAHP model has multiple computational steps, which were conducted in this study as a hierarchical prosses. Finally, we determined the weights of urban governance criteriaâs and sub criteriaâs based on decision making team.
This study with analytical â descriptive methodology, analysis the main urban governance criteriaâs (transparency, efficiency, accountability and flexibility) and sub criteriaâs by using experts viewpoints and FAHP model. The results show that, among the main indicators, performance with28% was considered as important indicators and accountability index gain the minimal weight. Between sub criteriaâs, performance allocated the lowest and highest weight. So that Creativity and leadership with 88% gain the heights weight and Problem-Solving Skills with 20% gain the lowest weight. In the present study using the expert opinions, transparency and efficiency with its own secondary indicators were selected as a revolutionary indicator of urban governance. Results in data analysis using a fuzzy AHP (FAHP) showed that the main problem in urban management system is within organization problemse. We could see this topic in creativity and leadership as a sub criteries. The results showed that for move in urban governance road, we have to attention to internal organization relations.
This study, according to its objects, determined and proposed indicators and their weights, for urban governance, by using expertâs viewpoints.