عنوان مقاله [English]
A survey of the urban hierarchy in Bushehr province
Emphasis on the role of Pars Special Economic Energy Zone
In some countries, especially developing countries, Population growth due to natural growth rate increases and intensification of rural-urban migration process has led to dominance one City on urban systems, in terms , says to it " Prime urban phenomenon". In Iran, the explosive growth of urban population and its real rapid growth after 1345 led to collapse of pre capitalist system of production, Changing relations between urban and rural intensification of migration flows. One of results of its main Physical - spatial has been a manifestation of heterogeneity and imbalances in urban networks in the Country. This research investigates urban hierarchy in Bushehr province during 1355 to 1390. . Research method "is a descriptive analysis" that using Official census data for 1355 to 1390 and various models, urban hierarchical in Bushehr province, has been studied and analyzed. Research findings using of all different methods and indexes to determine Primate city index that Bushehr Province was without primate city. Hence, It balanced in urban system.
Since 1800 has increased growth of urbanization, So that in 1980, about 8/39% of the world's population have lived in urban areas . (Darkush, 1383: 10). In 2005, been estimated that the urban population of the world 18/3 billion people of a total population of 46/6 of the world's billions, In other words close to half of world's population has resided in urban areas, and hence, this year, we witnessed a rapid urbanization of the world 's population. Roosa 2008: 3).
Currently, urban population of the world is increasing about 3/2 percent each year, Meanwhile, rapid development and rapid industrialization in many Third World cities is astounding, Therefore, the important point is that huge volume of this growth will happen in the developing world, Place where cities, more than three times a Location in rich and developed countries are growing. (Leman 1991: 216). Mainly ,These cities are Centers that a high proportion of the population living in those places, as the dominant cities or primate cities are known.
An American geographer Mark Jefferson coined word, "Primate City" in 1939, for the first time for such cities (Azimi, 1381: 65). the dominant cities or primate cities is a city that in terms of population or functioning can affect on other cities in a country (Shekooi, 1380: 485).
In relation to Iran, the explosive growth of urban population begins since 1345 that it is a actual reflection of the agrarian reform and national investment and rapid growth of investments is in the cities, Which led to complete collapse Pre-capitalist system of production with completion and development of new relations in the cities, led to the intensification of migration flows (Nazarian, 1383: 79). Consequently, the country's urban network gradually becomes heterogeneous. Thus, the present Study attempted to investigate and analyze Bushehr Urban hierarchy based on demographic variables of different models such as class differences, rank size rule, and based on demographics 1355 to 1385,
3. Research Methodology
The research method is a kind of "a little â Analytical, with reference to official census figures of our country, Data and information needed to population of province's cities, extracting, Then utilizing of models of different urban hierarchy, Bushehr province urban hierarchy has been analyzed.
4. Research findings
survey of Bushehr province urban hierarchy over 1355 to 1390 Suggests that the province has almost balanced and homogenous urban network. At first, in province urban hierarchy using a model classes difference and then using model rank - size investigated and same results has obtained in a model classes difference over the course 55 to 85, number of demographic groups, will grow from 4 groups of 55 years into 6 groups in the year 85. In all courses, only in second group of model, city of province has not been place for it, and Bushehr in first group, Borazjan in second group, Ganaveh port city in third group, and in the Latest course Khormoj in fourth group and other cities of the province have been placed in last group , the same process also is repeated in Rank-size model. In general, Research finding are indicated a relative balance is in province urban networks.
urban population increasing has been of the most significant reflection of Agrarian Reform and national investments after 1345, That eventually, It has led to imbalanced and heterogeneous country urban network, and in many cases to first urban phenomenon. The important point is that this condition should not be generalized to all regions of the country. In the meantime, survey of the Bushehr province urban hierarchy over 1355 to 1390 indicates that This province, on the contrary many provinces, especially the provinces that have megacities, provinces that almost are balanced and homogeneous urban network. Urban hierarchy In Province using model Difference classes and model rank - size has been investigated and similar results have been obtained. In a model classes difference over the course 55 to 85, Number of demographic groups, will grow from 4 groups of 55 years into 6 groups in the year 85. In all courses, only in second group of model, Bushehr in first group, Borazjan in second group, Ganaveh port city in third group, and in the Latest course Khormoj in fourth group and other cities of the province have been placed in last group. In general based on all different methods and indexes to determine Urban Primacy Index, (Two City Index, Four City Iindex ,Mahta formula, Moomav and Alwosabi) can be said that Bushehr Province was without a Primate city, and it balanced in the urban system. But this kind balance is of type "mixed model" , Meaning that Bushehr province urban hierarchy is not Standard and Primate City is not dominate in it.
Keywords: Urban hierarchy, classes difference, Rank-size rule, Size, Primate City, Bushehr province, Pars Special Economic Energy Zone