عنوان مقاله [English]
In todayâs world, housing and shelter have over shadowed more aspects if human life, so that it allocates more than 50 percent of households income. Nowadays housing and subject correlate with it considered as world subjects, urban planners and policymakers of different countries attend to solving the problem of related to that. UN - HABITATE is a pioneer organization in collecting urban indicators that it has based the subject of housing indicators in 1991 and focus on surveillance of settlements work. According to that housing is one of the fundamentals requirements of per household, should answer human needs, because the shortage of each needs in a dwelling unit will cause crisis and imbalance in the whole system of social life and lack of housing will prevent for forming and growth of healthy family.
2- Theoretical Bases
Housing is a fundamental needs of human and it confirms that governments legally are responsible authority for assure to citizens in order to adequate accessibility to proper housing. Housing has the maximum weight in costs basket of Iranian citizen households and citizen households for provision of housing in cities especially in big cities are faced with many problems. In Islamic ideology the importance of housing as far as that housing provision is considered as fundamental of economic freedom and eradication of poverty. The low income citizens especially in big cities in order to different reasons like land cheap in periphery of cities, speculation, ease in buying and selling the lands without official document, non - payment of tax, weakness of urban management system and â¦ proceed to construction of sub - standard and low quality housing and thus studying and surveying the housing indicators is necessary in cities. List the housing polices as a proper instrument for evaluation of criterions. These indicators can help us to picture of housing status in future careers. According to this, done studies in Urmia city represent that strong population migration from around villages of city because of Urmia lake drought and increase in population of city on the one hand and lack of planning and necessary tools for favorable settlement of population have caused dissonance in skeletal and social system of Urmia city.
This research with the goal of surveying housing quantitative and qualitative indicators in Urmia zones attend to ranking zone status according to quantitative and qualitative indicators in order to priority for comprehensive urban housing planning provision. This research according to its purpose is the kind of applied research and according to method of work, it has descriptive- analytical nature. Data collection has done via library studies, existent articles and information of the 1390 census of Urmia city. To extract the parameters for ranking the four regions of Urmia city, opinion of 10 experts and professors have been used. In this research for surveying housing indicators at 4 zones of Urmia, it has used TOPSIS model. Also in order to apply weights to indicators for ranking zones, it has used principal component method in SPSS software. Qualitative and quantitative indicators are used in this research include kind of building structure )consistency of building), density of person dwelling, density of family per dwelling, possessive occupancy, number of room per dwelling, room for every family , density of person in room, bad housing and destructive of dwelling units. To run the TOPSIS model according to housing indicators in 4 zones of Urmia, at first the raw matrix of housing indicators is formed then according to that indicators have different scales, the normalize of these indicators via Euclidean method has done. Since used indicators donât have equal value and importance, so for eliminate this difference it needs to calculate the weight of desired indicators and multiply this weight in disputed resolution of scale matrix. In this research calculating the weight of indicators is done via principal component method In SPSS software, so that calculated weight for each indicators as follows: kind of building structure )consistency of building) 0/65, density of person dwelling 0/37, density of family per dwelling 0/91, possessive occupancy 0/82, number of room per dwelling 0/96, room for every family 0/95 , density of person in room 0/99, bad housing 0/86 and destructive of dwelling units is 0/40. With multiply normalize matrix in obtained weight from weighted normal matrix is obtained. In the next stage ideal ( ) and non-ideal ( ) solution for each indicators according to being positive and negative of indicators are obtained via the value of weighted normalize matrix. Therefore distance of each indicator with ideal solution ( ) and non-ideal ( ) solution are calculated according to the kind of indicators (in order to being positive or negative). In the next stage relative proximity of 4 zones from ideal solution ( ) are calculated and therefore sorted in descending order according to value of as follows: zone one with value of 0/965, zone four with0/627, zone three with 0/311 and zone tow with the value of 0/301.
In an overall conclusion can say in order to that Urmia city have 4 zones according to subdivisions of municipality and zone one includes new texture of city, the most of housing indicators have desirable status. Zones of two and three include median texture of city so that marginal areas of Urmia city locate in tow zones. The zone four includes old texture. Obtained results from process of TOPSIS model express that according to composition of 9 housing indicators, zones of 1, 4, 3 and 2 respectively are in grades of one through four. Note that pay attention to the results of the housing indicators ranking in Urmia city can help to planners and urban authorities in priority of urban development plans in order to intervention in housing. At the end of research suggestions are submitted in order to improvement of housing indicators.
At the end, proposals are based on the results of the study are presented in the context of housing planning in the city of Urmia:
- Prioritize deprived areas in order to having the bank and government facilities.
- Housing master planning provision for the city of Urmia.
- Benefit from the views of citizens in order to improve the housing indexes.
- Improvement and renovation planning provision for old textures.
- planning in order to empowerment of residents of informal settlements.
- And â¦