کیفیت‌سنجی محیط در محله‌های شهری و برنامه‌ریزی برای محیط پایدار

نویسندگان

دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران

چکیده

زیستگاه انسانی هنگامی می‌تواند بیشترین مطلوبیت را برای انسان دربرداشته باشد که انتظارات وی را در ابعاد مختلف، زیست‌محیطی، اجتماعی، کالبدی، اقتصادی و... برآورده سازد. چنانچه هریک از این عوامل، در محیط زندگی یک فرد، فاقد کیفیات مطلوب باشند، بر احساس و ادراک وی از فضا و درنتیجه بر سطح رضایت‌مندی او از محیط زندگی تأثیرگذار خواهد بود. پژوهش حاضر با تأکید بر مشترکات دو مبحث «توسعه پایدار محله‌ای» و «کیفیت محیط» صورت گرفته است. اهداف این پژوهش شامل ارزیابی نحوه تعامل میان فرد و ادراک او از محیط از یک‌سو و همچنین وضعیت فیزیکی و عینی محیط از سوی دیگر، تعیین عوامل مؤثر بر کیفیت محیط مسکونی در فضای محله‌های شهری است. شیوه جمع‌آوری اطلاعات میدانی، بر پایه بررسی‌های عینی محقق و تکمیل پرسشنامه از ساکنان و مسئولان بوده است. این پژوهش ازنظر نوع، «کاربردی» و ازنظر روش، «تحلیلی-تطبیقی» با تأکید بر «نگرش سیستمی» است. مدل ارزیابی کیفیت محیط در قالب مؤلفه‌های کالبدی-فضایی، اجتماعی-فرهنگی، اقتصادی، زیست‌محیطی و مدیریتی –حکمروایی به‌صورت سلسله مراتبی و ایجاد درخت ارزش با رویکرد بالا به پایین ایجاد گردیده است. به‌منظور تحلیل همزمان شاخص‌های عینی و ذهنی از فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) و نرم‌افزار expert choice استفاده شد. بر اساس نتایج تکنیک AHP محله‌های شهرک دانشگاه و شاناز با 383/0 و 277/0 امتیاز ازنظر شاخص‌های موردمطالعه در بهترین شرایط و محله‌های بهارستان پایین و تپه مالان با 071/0 و 061/0 در بدترین شرایط و پایین‌ترین رتبه قرار دارند. درمجموع سهم هریک از مؤلفه‌ها محاسبه شد که مؤلفه زیست‌محیطی با سهم 7/35 درصدی در رتبه اول قرار گرفت و مؤلفه‌های اقتصادی، مدیریتی-حکمروایی به ترتیب با سهم 1/6 و 1/4 درصد در رتبه‌های آخر قرار دارند که در برنامه‌ریزی‌های آتی باید به آن توجه شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of Environmental Quality in Urban Neighborhoods and Planning for Sustainable Environment (Case Study: Neighborhoods of Saqez City) Ù¾

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Movahed
  • F. Sasanpour
  • A. shama
  • S. Mostafavi Saheb
  • F. Sasanpour
University of Kharazmi
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract
1- Introduction
Cities and neighborhoods in Iran couldn’t adjust themselves to quick changes of the recent decades and have lost their quality in many aspects. due to poor planning and governance at the regional and urban design on physical function, rapid growth of large-scale migrations and inefficient policies and procedures in dealing with urban neighborhoods neglected urban neighborhoods as well as constructive role in promoting social identity, economic, physical of urban, neighborhoods problems are somehow unprecedented appearance . Vision of neighborhood sustainable development strengthened new approach of urban problems that return to concept that imagined neighborhoods as cells if urban living. Following, one of the approaches that emerged from increasing urbanization is environmental quality:



as an approach that seeking “urban favorable living”. Present research based on share point of two topic: “Neighborhood sustainable development” and “environment quality”. Because of deep study this research according residents satisfaction and non-satisfaction of residents’ neighborhood quality. Finally in edition of producing criteria to neighborhood sustainably assessment, proposed the process to the decision makers and managers to priorities action for improving environment quality consistent of sustainable development process. This paper intends to promote the environmental quality and people satisfaction of living in neighborhood by recognizing and prioritizing the main environmental quality factors which have effect on satisfaction of living in neighborhood. Neighborhoods of Saqez is decades was selected for this study. So, in this paper, the environmental quality of urban in Neighborhoods of Saqez City was evaluated from residents Perspective. In this regard, this study is to pursue the following objectives:
-The evaluation of urban environmental quality of Saqez neighborhoods.
-Identify the affecting factors on quality of urban environment in the neighborhood.
2-Theoretical bases
1-2 Quality of urban environment
Quality of urban environment is an aspect of quality of life that encompasses a sense of well being, comfort and satisfaction of people's from economic and social factors, environmental, physical and symbolic environment of their lives. In other words, environmental quality not only attention to supply the material needs of man's but also attention to provide and promote community capacity and social development which Also affect on their social behavior patterns. Cognitive – Psychological Perspective is current perspectives in urban environmental quality. This view from one side shows of the environment and human interactions over time and the other hand reveals the positive and negative factors that affected on the satisfaction rate and hurt sense of people from their environment lives. Two important variables include the perspective of cognitive psychology 1- Characteristics of environmental factors.2- Characteristics of Individual and personality.These two variables explain the quality of urban environment.
2-2 The paradigm of Sustainable Development
After the energy crisis of the 70's Built a new era in urban development to as the "age lasting" brand name. Sustainable development paradigm is inspiring: Over the past 25 years, governments, Business organizations, and citizens have embraced it as a guiding principle and to achieve the desired objectives And assessment have been devised strategies. In this context, the use of indicators as one of the most essential tools to assess progress towards sustainable development have been sought. The community appropriate to their conditions Framework certain Uses. Such frameworks are based Sustainability objectives, dimensions of sustainability, sustainable development processes. The most widely Framework in terms of used Based on The stability dimensions of the Review sustainable development of the content and to assess the results of the policy pays.
3-Discussion
According to the research objectives and components, the type of this research is practical and the methodology is descriptive- analytical. A survey of 6 neighborhoods in Saqez, according to the administrative division – is political. The sampling method was multi-stage: stage one was cluster sampling and in stage two, simple random sampling was used. First, based on the total population the number of samples was specified. Cronbach's alpha was used to obtain the reliability of the research instrument. The value of 0.86 for the tool suggests that this tool has very good reliability. To obtain validity of the questionnaire we used for factor analysis by KMO. KMO value of 0.75 for this tool indicates a good level of validity. Some of the information has been gathered from the Population Census of Housing, data from annals, organizations, and institutions concerned. For data analysis AHP model was used to evaluate the ability of neighborhoods of Saqez City. Using AHP first the parameters are extracted Questionnaire were compared individually and in pair And a paired comparison the relative weight of each identified the weight ratio of each other is a measure. After determining the coefficients of each of the options put measures in relation to each of the indicators judged. As is evident most criteria, including quality, form and texture (0.389), And Activities0.396, Citizenship Rights 0.352, Environmental Performance0.254, Performance and Effectiveness0.417, in the neighborhood. Terms active in terms of economy of scale is low.in the Shanaze neighborhood criteria authenticity 0.375, Litter quality and the natural environment 0.346, Accountability 0.397 is in very good condition. Terms to the quality standards of bazar neighborhood vitality 0.366, identity and image 0.321, mental flexibility, interaction and social life 0.274, the economy needs 0.418 ideally located.In terms of quality, form and texture 0.171 and quality of the substrate and the natural environment 0.089 in an unenviable position. Neighborhood koshtgarah can be said with regard to quality criteria are moderate. The overall quality of neighborhood identity and mental Score is the first priority. In this neighborhood vitality 0.214, identity and image0.210 quality with a score of mental flexibility is a priority. And the remaining criteria are moderate.in the Tape Malan All resolutions on the situation in the neighborhood environment is low, indicating the importance of these measures in the neighborhood.
4-Conclusion
In this study, the performance of each criterion was analyzed separately in the community. At the end techniques using AHP neighborhoods were ranked based on the dimensions and measures. Sensitivity analysis of the dynamics of environmental quality for the expert choice software indicated. The physical-space (mental-physical) with a share of 23.23 and the physical-space (objective) with a share of 22.1 in the first and second.
The factors economic and management- governance In order to share 6.1 and 4.1 Percent are in the final rankings. The result show that according environmental quality all neighborhoods are low level generality. According to quality of suitable aspects the neighborhoods have big gap. According result central neighborhood (bazar, shanaz, koshtargah) than marginal neighborhoods (tapemalan, baharestan pain, shahrak daneshgah) exceptions shahrak daneshgah ’have more suitable and environmental sustainably. According index shahrak daneshgah with 0.283 is in best situation and high environmental quality than other neighborhoods and tapemalan Wight 0.061 mark is in lowest level and environmental quality.


Figure 1: The final weight of the target neighborhood environmental quality of urban neighborhoods



5- Suggestions
At the end، for promotion of the environmental qualities, some solutions was recommended. The main special –physical indicators that should be considered to promote the environmental qualities are including neighborhood that is well-connected with important parts of the city، aesthetic aspects of the neighborhood، mixed use، neighborhood center and sense of central location. The main social indicators are residents’ responsibility، social interaction and participation in public activities، and interaction with city managers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Environment
  • Environmental Quality
  • Sustainable Development
  • Analytic Hierarchical Process
  • City Saqez