عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
The pattern of distribution of universities and HEIs in the demographic and spatial scale and its effect on increasing participation rates in higher education (case study: Provinces of Iran)
Today higher education is an agent of social and economic mobility among countries and regions worldwide, and increasing citizen participation in higher education is an infrastructure of development.Several studies, including Tuijnmam and colleagues (1988), Moock (2003), Self (2003), Lin (2004), Zhi Jiang Liu (2007), Chi Yong and colleagues (2008), Anderson and colleagues (2009), Shafigh (2010), Dinwiddie (2010) shows significant impact of increasing participation in higher education in regional development.Studies that show the distribution of universities and HEIs can be effective to attract the citizens' participation in higher education.
But in Iran, despite the increase of universities and HEIs in recent years,we don't know any about the distribution of universities and HEIs and the role of them in citizens' participation in higher education.
Hence, in this study,we will analyse the current pattern of distribution of universities and HEIs in the demographic and spatial scale in Iran and then examine the role of each of these patterns in increase of citizens' participation in higher education. Type of study is applied research and research method is descriptive and analytical. The Statistical community is the provinces of Iran and the data obtained from the Higher Education Statistics in 89-1388 school year. We applied the method of density' measurement for evaluation the distributionâ pattern of universities and HEIs in provinces of Iran. The relative density of universities and HEIs in spatial and population scale and the relative density of students in different provinces calculated with the technique of distribution quotient and The Spss software used to analyze the relationships between variables.
Card (1995), Rouse (1995), Dearing (1997) Gorard & Smith (2006) studied the geographic distance from home to universities and HIEs as an affecting factor in higher education participation.In this regard, a number of papers including Connor et al (1999), Christie et al (2005) and Thomas and Quinn (2007), proximity Place of education to home showed as an important factor for participation of ethnic minorities and adult in higher education.Frente in 2004 and 2006 shows that With the increasing distance between large universities and home, the students tend to find a HEI to higher education at proximity of their home.Wrohlich & Spiess (2010) have examinedthe role of geographic distance to the nearest university and continue education in the higher education.The findings of this study show that the distance to the nearest university profound impact on the completion time of high school and decided to participation in higher education. Alm and winters (2009) show in their research the role of increasing distance from home to the university in reducing inter-regional migration the students for participation in higher education.Do (2004) show that a good public university in the region, thereby increasing the level of participation in higher education. Based on study this further increase is seen among people with low income. Montgomery and Jepsen (2009) have written a paper on the impact of distance on the choice of a higher education center for education by adults.
They found that distance is a critical factor in the decision to attend a higher education center. They stated that increased distance from home to the HIE can decrease enroll in HIE .Simulation model in this study shows that by increasing three miles to the distance of the center of higher education, enrollments will decrease till 14 percent .
Results show that in general, the distribution of universities and centers of HEIs in population scale is more balanced compared to spatial distribution. IN relation to the relative density of the student population in each province, findings indicate that the highest density of students is in Semnan province and in Sistan and Baluchistan province there is lowest relative density of student population. In semnan province there is one student for every 7 people and in the Sistan and Baluchistan province there is one student for every 33 people. The relative density of universities and HEIs (on a scale population) the relative density of student population in the provinces of Iran, it was determined that about 77/1 the percentage of variable explained by the seven independent variables entered in the equation. Of the seven independent variables are the only two variables (relative density of non-profit HEIs in the population scale and relative density higher education institutions affiliated to PNU-scale population) is significant, and the effects of other variables are not significant.
Findings Show that relative density of non-profit HEIs in the population scale has a greater impact in increasing the relative density of student population in the provinces of Iran compared with the relative density of population in HEIs affiliated to PNU.Studies show that the spatial distribution of universities and HEIs have not a significant impact on the student population in the provinces of Iran.
Distribution of universities and HEIs in the provinces of Iran in population scale is more balanced in compared to spatial scale. On a population scale, the highest density of universities and HEIs there is in the province of Semnan and the Sistan and Baluchistan province is in the end in this respect. In the spatial scale, the Tehran province is densest and the Sistan and Baluchistan province is in the end of this list. The highest population density of student there is in the Semnan Province and the lowest of student population there is in the Sistan-Baluchestan province. Increasing the relative density of universities and HEIs in the scale of population in compared with spatial scale have a greater impact on increasing citizen participation in higher education. Findings also showed that increasing the number of HEIs non-profit and higher education institutions affiliated to PNU has a significant effect on the relative density increases student population in the provinces of Iran.
To attract greater participation of different social groups in higher education, HEIs affiliated to PNU and non-profit HEIs in different provinces can be considered as an alternative. The mission of such as these universities and HEIs must be to propagate. They should accept student in the undergraduate-level and expand the base of the pyramid of higher education in the country. They must act as collectors to increase citizens' participation rates in higher education. Their distribution must be in population scale. IN contrast, the activity of large institutions (including universities affiliated to the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology and the Ministry of Health and Medical Education) to the production of knowledge and participation in decision-making is concentrated in regional development policy.They should be act to admissions of student in Masters and PhD and expand the research activities. Because the primary purpose of these schools is to increase the number of researchers in the community, they can be distributed on a spatial scale.