نقش اقلیم در معماری بافت های مختلف شهری مطالعه ی موردی،شهر سبزوار

نویسندگان

چکیده

پیشینه­ی طراحی و ساخت و ساز با توجه به معیارها و ویژگی­های طبیعی و اقلیمی در معماری سنتی ایران به صدها سال می­رسد و از شاهکارهای معماری در جهان به شمار می­آید. رشد تکنولوژی و دستیابی به انرژی­های فسیلی موجب شد تا رعایت معیارهای اقلیمی در ساخت ساز مسکن به بوته فراموشی سپرده شود. این پژوهش سعی دارد، که با مطالعه وضعیت زیست اقلیم شهر سبزوار با استفاده از مدل ماهانی به ارایه راهکارهایی جهت طراحی ساختمانی که همساز با اقلیم این منطقه باشد بپردازد، و با بررسی ویژگی­های مساکن بافت­های قدیم، میانی و جدید این شهر میزان سازگاری بافت­های سه­گانه با شرایط آب و هوایی شهر سبزوار مورد ارزیابی قرار گیرد. لذا جهت نیل به این هدف مساکن موجود براساس قدمت و ویژگی­های معماری به سه بافت قدیم، میانی و جدید تقسیم شدند، و با توجه به ویژگی­های معماری ساختمان­ها پرسشنامه­ای با 195 نمونه از بافت­های معماری در مناطق مختلف شهر سبزوار انتخاب و تکمیل شد. در ادامه آمار و اطلاعات ایستگاه سینوپتیک شهر سبزوار در یک دوره آماری 30 ساله شامل دما، رطوبت، باد و بارندگی استخراج و با استفاده از مدل ماهانی وضعیت زیست اقلیمی این شهر مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و پیشنهادات زیر برای طراحی ساختمان­ها ارایه گردید: جهت شمالی- جنوبی ساختمان­ها، فاصله­گذاری ساختمان­ها به صورت فشرده، اختصاص 40-25 درصد مساحت دیوار به بازشوها، انتخاب مصالح سنگین ساختمانی برای دیوارهای داخلی و خارجی و کف و طراحی مکانی برای استراحت در فضای آزاد. مقایسه نتایج حاصل از پرسشنامه­ها در هریک از بافتهای مختلف شهری وتطبیق آن با پیشنهادات بهینه مدل ماهانی نشان داد در شهر سبزوار الگوی معماری بافت قدیم بیشترین سازگاری را با شرایط اقلیمی این شهرنشان می‌دهد و دربافت جدید این سازگاری درکمترین حد خود قرار دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Impact of Climate on the Architecture of Different Urban Textures

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. SALMANIMOGHADDAM
  • M. BAAGHIDEH
  • E. POORGHOLAMHASAN
چکیده [English]

1-Introduction: Today, the effect of climatic on architecture is obvious and any architectural projects which don’t consider climatic features of the targeted region would not be cost efficient and perfect. Besides architectures and residential areas, the urban spaces like streets, need to consider climatic studies. In line with this climatic architecture is a science which deals with using climatic elements to improve efficient construction so that it contributes with human comfort and saving fuels. It also distinguishes the architecture of a specific region. Technological developments and attaining fossil fuels led to our distance from the principles of traditional architecture. This study, consequently, aims to investigate the bioclimatic features of Sabzevar and present some ways for designing constructions in line with bioclimatic features of different regions so that constructions become of compatible with the climatic features.     

2-Theoretical bases: Architecture compatible with climate is defined as maintains of microclimatic condition of the houses in the comfort limits disregarding exterior condition of buildings. Comfort limit is the condition in which an approximate 80% of people feel comfortable. The main configurations of a building include wall, roof, window and bower each one is directly influenced by climatic features. Consequently this study initially classified buildings in Sabzevar in to three groups based on architecture and the ago: Old, Middle and Modern textures. Then a questionnaire with 43 questions was designed and distributed among the settlers of a sample of 195 buildings (80 modern, 70 middle and 45 old constructions) randomly selected. Direct interview with the inhabitants, photography and visiting the interior the results were analyzed for all the three textures and were complemented by the meteorological data, including maximum and minimum temperature, the average temperature fluctuation per month, the average yearly temperature fluctuation, the average maximum and minimum relative humidity the average relative humidity per month, the total yearly precipitation  and wind direction and speed were used for a period of 30 years (1980-2010) from Sabzevar Synoptic Station. Mahoney Model was also used to investigate the bioclimatic situation of Sabzevar. Finally suggestions were presented for improving the design and architecture of construction in Sabzevar so that they will be compatible with the climatic features.   

3-Discussion:  The results of this study indicated that the buildings should be constructed with a North-South direction the buildings are better to be more compact the windows should take about 25-40% of the walls and the construction materials of the interior and exterior should be heavy to hold the heat with a delay time of 8 hours. Considering the climate of Sabzevar in the second half of the year and the need to save heat, heavy roofs with a delay time of 8 hours are recommended. Furthermore, open spaces for rest and sleep  is recommended in the architecture. The compatibility of each texture, modern, old and middle, was analyzed through Mahoney Model indicated that the old buildings are most and modern buildings are the least compatible with the climatic condition.

4-Conclusion: in this research, beside of studying inhabitance building in different period of time, we propose principles for adaptive designing that be proper for Sabzevar climate. We compare adaptive design in old building with new ones, and find that in old building, they consider climate as effective element in designing, but in new building, because of modern technology, climate as effective element has been forgotten. Mahoney Model solutions that are compatible with the climate of Sabzevar are: The proper placement of buildings, building proper spacing, use of specific materials in walls, ceilings and floors, a rest place in open air, specifications windows With this guidelines, we hope more buildings be more comfort and increase energy saving. If these conditions fulfill, huge burden of consumer spending will be removed.

5- Suggestions: for further study the following suggestion are presented:

-Changing the altitudes towards old architecture and modeling the positive points in this architecture so that the architecture would be more compatible with climatic conditions in the modern urban texture.

-Employing the finding of this research in designing and construction of future houses and apartments in Sabzevar.

-Maintaining and repairing the old construction as valuable architectures and making the authorities and decision makers to use this architecture as a compatible one with warm and dry regions.

-More supervision on principles of architecture and construction of today’s housing so that there will be a considerable saving in the energy expenses.

-Since Mahoney Model doesn’t consider the effect of wind speed, we recommend other modes with this factor in the future studies. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Climate
  • architecture
  • model Mahany
  • Sabzevar