مکان گزینی فضاهای همگانی امن در محلات شهری با رویکرد چیدمان فضا (نمونه موردی: محله وردآورد تهران)

نویسندگان

دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران.ایران

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش، سنجش فضایی بافت محلات شهری به منظور مکان گزینی فضاهای همگانی امن است. در این راستا بافت محله وردآورد که به دلیل ویژگی‌های خاص، موجبات ایجاد معضلات و آسیب‌های اجتماعی را در فضاهای شهری خود فراهم کرده است، به عنوان نمونه موردی بررسی می‌شود. پژوهش از نوع کاربردی و شیوه مطالعه بر حسب روش و ماهیت، توصیفی-تحلیلی و تجربی-پیمایشی است. بنابراین، در تبیین ادبیات و سوابق موضوع تحقیق و ارایۀ مدل تحلیلی پژوهش از مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای و برای جمع آوری اطلاعات با توجه به ماهیت تحقیق از روش‌های میدانی و مطالعات اسنادی استفاده شده است. مدل تحلیلی پژوهش متشکل از شاخص‌های موثر بر امنیت در فضاهای همگانی محلات شهری در قالب 5 مولفه کالبدی، عملکردی، حرکت و دسترسی، ادراکی-معنایی و مدیریت شهری و 19 معیار و سنجه‌های ارزیابی آن، ارائه گردیده است. در ادامه، به منظور اولویت بندی شاخص‌های ارائه شده از فرآیند تحلیل شبکه‌ای استفاده شده است. بنابراین، بر اساس نتایج حاصل از رتبه بندی، محدوده مطالعاتی مورد تحلیل و ارزیابی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور با استفاده از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی و روش چیدمان فضا، مناسب ترین مکان‌ها و موقعیت‌ها برای مکان گزینی فضاهای همگانی امن جهت ارتقاء امنیت در بافت شناسایی گردید. در انتها نتایج حاصل از تلفیق مدل‌ها و مطالعات انجام شده، در چارچوب مفهومی سوآت ارائه گردیده و به ارایۀ پیشنهادات بر مبنای مدل مفهومی پژوهش پرداخته شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Site Selection Of Safe Public Spaces In Urban Neighborhoods by using space syntax method (Case study: Vardavard Neighborhoods In Tehran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • z. zarabadi
  • f. habib
  • s. takalou
Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract:

 1- Introduction

Urban design is the art of creating places for people. So, included issues such as function of places and security local community (basiri&danesh, 1999,8). The design of streets and buildings should be maintained with easy access and open spaces for safe urban areas. The location of anomic behavior and crime cuses, has a special role on factors. Through the identify and modification of spatial and physical factors can be reduced hot spot conditions (salehi,2008,72). Good design and proper use of the environment can also prevent crime, improve the quality of life and reduce the fear of crime (crowe, 2000, p64).

 2-Theoretical Bases

The purpose of this study is to provide an analytical model for evaluating neighborhoods texture with identify hotspot in urban spaces to increas quality of security in the neighborhoods, through the design of safe public spaces in insecure environments. So, this research highlighting the role of neighborhoods and the relationships between the fundamental principles of creating a secure environment to prevent crimes. In other words, creating defensible spaces in neighborhoods and spaces that attract people and maintain it. 3-Discussion According to the results of the study, was achieved the environmental factors to improve the security of public spaces in neighborhoods. Consist of physical, functional, mobility and access, perceptual-semantic and urban management factors that prioritized by analytic network process(ANP). accordingly, the factors relating to "surveillance" in urban areas are the priority. Therefore, to identify hot spots,the site selection and space syntax method is used. finally, to determine the neighborhood texture, offering SWOT method for combining the results of the assessment. Presented in the form of public spaces safe environmental cuses. On this basis, guidelines and suggestions are offered to improve safety in the neighborhoods. 4-Conclusion Results of overlapping the user type and Variety layers showed unsafe locations. So that, the intersection of Imam Hussein and Valiasr and the area around this node, reduced Ability to surveillance. also, reduced level of supervision in isolated residential areas on the edge. However, there are greater surveillance by active and retail users in the central part of texture, the intersection of the Vardavrd and Imam Hussein Streets. Therefore, based on the urban management factor, observed imbalance in the distribution of land uses and services at the neighborhood scale. Due to the difference between the highest and lowest integration And mean depth of nodes in the neighborhood of Vardavrd, It was concluded that texture is not monolithic neighborhoods which indicates because of maintaining urban landscape. this type of connection lead to not created public realm as neighborhood centers. thus, the lack of spatial integration and disconnection of pedestrians movement leading to decrease absorbent and commercial functions, so, follow to lack of "natural surveillance" and due to the interdependence between the critenria, reduces the quality of security in the neighborhoods. By main street respectively, intersection of Vardavrd boulevard and Imam Hussein avenue and intersection of Imam Hussain and valiasr street, have highest integration value. since with configuration can designated movement patterns for pedestrian, increased surveillance in places by guiding behavior and movement into unsafe places. That's feasible way for locating public spaces in unsafe areas.

 5-Suggestions

 According to the results, the following suggestions provided for the purpose of research:

 - Based on the predicted movement by space syntax method, the nodes with high integration value and also as insecure space without surveillance or eyes of street along- with undermining activities, can be used as the main activity centers of neighborhoods.so, space attractions are located in movement patterns.

 - From the viewpoint of urban design, the mixing uses model must be done with consideration of security and surveillance in urban areas. spatial justice and proper distribution of urban users and adapted to locally scale to improve surveillance in edge of neighborhoods should be a priority in urban planning management.

 - Filling the gaps, especially in visible places and activity centers to improve pedestrian activities and movements.

 - Creating integrated structure developed by regular street pattern, with small and shallow blocks and multiple entrance, open spaces in adequate location to create visual and functional connection. 

- Represeuting visual symbols and legible signs.

 - Creating sense of closure with integration and sequence in physical planning in future developments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Security
  • Neighborhoods
  • Public space
  • Analytic Network Process
  • GIS
  • Space Syntax