تحلیل فضایی پراکنش فقر جنسیتی در فضاهای شهری

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

پدیده فقر شهری علی‌رغم تمام برنامه‌های جهانی و ملی در مبارزه با آن هنوز به‌عنوان یک نیروی قاهر و یک معضل اجتماعی، جوامع شهری را تهدید می‌کند و شهرها را با جلوه‌های ناکارآمد و درهم ‌ریخته سازمان می‌دهد. در این بین یکی از ابعاد فقر شهری، رویکرد جنسیتی فقر است. دیدگاه جنسیتی به فقر ادراک مفهوم فقر را افزایش می‌دهد چرا که سبب می‌شود تجزیه ‌و تحلیل توصیفی در علل فقر فراتر رود. از اینرو هدف این تحقیق تحلیل فضایی پراکنش فقر جنسیتی در فضاهای شهر تبریز می باشد. جامعه آماری این تحقیق محدوده‌ی قانونی شهر تبریز در سال 1385 و حجم نمونه‌ نیز تمامی بلوک های آماری سال 1385 تبریز است. روش پژوهش در این مطالعه کاربردی از نوع توصیفی- تحلیلی- تطبیقی است که برای شناخت و سنجش فقر از فن خود همبستگی فضایی با استفاده از تحلیل لکه‌های داغ در نرم‌افزار Arc/GIS، برای تحلیل الگوهای پراکنش فقر شهری از آماره موران و برای تعیین سطح معنی‌داری از آزمون T همبسته استفاده گردیده است. یافته‌های تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که توزیع فقر شهری برای هر دو گروه زنان و مردان در فضاهای شهری تبریز از مدل خوشه‌ای پیروی می‌کند و خوشه‌های مرفه نزدیک به مرکز شهر و خوشه‌های فقیر به حاشیه گرایش دارند. در این پژوهش بیشترین تعداد بلوک های شهری مربوط به گروه مردان با 3506 بلوک مربوط به بلوک های فقیر و برای گروه زنان با 4845 بلوک مربوط به بلوک های خیلی فقیر است. همچنین کمترین تعداد این بلوک‌ها برای گروه مردان و زنان مربوط به بلوک های خیلی مرفه است که گروه مردان 1% و گروه زنان 5% از تعداد کل بلوک های شهری تبریز را در سال 1385 به خود اختصاص داده است. همچنین آزمون T همبسته تفاوت معنی‌دار را در گروه زنان و مردان از لحاظ شاخص اجتماعی نشان می دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial Analysis of the distribution of gender poverty in urban spaces of Tabriz

نویسندگان [English]

  • f. zadvali
  • h. karimzadeh
  • sh. rostaei
tabriz university
چکیده [English]

Urban poverty is the greatest challenges of global development. If the current adverse trends continue, over the next years, two billion people will be residents of impoverished areas. Today, Tabriz city as the fifth most populated city of Iran is experiencing rapid urbanization and urbanism which this leads to lack of services and facilities available to citizens and the objectivity of poverty can be found in areas, like Yousef Abad, Khalil Abad, etc.Now more than half the world's population live in cities.That One of the main challenges facing cities in the twenty-first century, the focus of poverty in cities.Urban poverty especially in developing countries, is expanding faster and higher volume. Poverty reduction is a global concern. Now part of the urban poor is rising.Urban poverty threatens urban communities despite all the global and national programs to combat it as social problem and omnipotent force and it organizes cities with chaotic effects. Urban poverty has a gender specified dimension. Gender perspective into poverty increases the perception of poverty as causes with this perspective goes beyond the descriptive analysis of the causes of poverty. So check the status of gender and the spread of urban poverty and ways to improve the current conflict. Feminization of poverty is one of the main problems of the present time That has captivated millions of people to itself And among women in the world are victims of bitter poverty However, due to lack of information about the various groups of poor women in the analysis of this phenomenon is not well but, limited information is also indicative of the fact that it is shocking and grievous That far more women than men suffer from the problem of poverty.The statistical population is legal range of Tabriz city in 2006 and our sample size is 2006 statistical blocks.The research method is an applied, descriptive, comparative analytical .For recognizing and measuring poverty spatial autocorrelation technique using hot spot analysis in Arc / GIS is used. To analyze the distribution patterns of urban poverty Moran statistic is used after showing indicators of social-economic status for both men and women, Moran index for these indices are calculated. Moran index for the socio-economic characteristics of men and women in 2006 were calculated based on the average of this indicator is equal to 0.082076 and 0.317598. Since the Moran index for both positive and close to one Also according to the p-value is very small we can conclude that the socal-economic indicators for both women and men are spatial autocorrelation and the measure of statistical blocks in the cluster are scattered. The index for the index z score equal to 5.108197 in 2006 for men and women to show 15.00557. Significant with respect to the point’s Z score, the spatial correlation indicitors of women are than men. Also paired T-test was used to determine the level of significance. The results indicate that a significant level of economic indicators for women and men equal to 0.09 since this number is greater than 0.05 and is therefore, there isn’t a significant difference between men and women in terms of economic indicators. But since the level of significance for social index is less than 0.05, it can be concluded that no significant difference between men and women in terms of social indicators are. In order to recognitize Tabriz in perspective of spatial poverty organization, statistical blocks of year 2006 have been used for both group of mens and womens. Social-economic indicators used in this study, 15 indicators for both women and men that inclouded 6 social indicators and 9 economic idicators fore each group. Also results from the analysis of the data show the distribution of urban poverty in the city of Tabriz space obeys cluster model. Prosperous clusters tend to be close to downtown and poor clusters have been scattered on the outskirts.also The largest number of urban blocks for men group is poor blocks with 34% and for women group is very poor blocks with 47%. The fewer the number of blocks in the block for men and women is very comfortable that this block for men group has 1% and for women group has 5% in year 2006.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Poverty
  • Spatial Analysis
  • gender poverty
  • urban spaces