تحلیل و ارزیابی بافت فرسوده در نقاط شهری منتخب استان کردستان با تأکید بر مشکلات بخش مسکن

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشگاه خوارزمی

چکیده

بافتهای فرسوده شامل گونههای تاریخی، میانی و دارای اسکان غیر رسمی هستند که در حدود 30 درصد بافتهای شهری با 34 درصد جمعیت شهرنشین نقاط منتخب شهری استان کردستان را شامل میشود. این بافتها با مشکلات متعدد کالبدی، اکولوژیکی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی مواجه هستند که بخش عمده آن ناشی از کیفیت و کمیت نازل مساکن آنها در کنار مشکلات اقتصادی است. در عین حال این بافت‌ها‌ پتانسیل‌های مناسبی برای تأمین مسکن در شهرها را فراهم می‌کنند. توجه به این بافتها در راستای احیاء و توانمندسازی آنها برای حل مشکلات خود این بافتها و نیز راه حلی برای توسعه فیزیکی شهرها با استفاده از توسعه درونی اهمیت حیاتی دارد. این مطالعه به روش تحلیلی ـ توصیفی انجام شده و از نتایج طرحها و مطالعات انجام شده و نیز آمارهای رسمی کشور استفاده شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان میدهد که 30 درصد بافت شهرهای منتخب با 34 درصد جمعیت شهرنشین جزء بافتهای فرسوده است؛ که در این بافت تنها 30 درصد واحدها از نظر کیفی در رده قابل قبول و از نظر کمی تنها 6/43 درصد در گروه قابل نگهداری قرار دارند. در این بافت تراکم خالص مسکونی 200 نفر در هکتار نسبت به میانگین کشوری بیشتر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis and Investigation of the Dilapidated Fabric in the Selected Urban Regions of Kordistan Province with an Emphasis on

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Mohammadi 1
  • F. Hosseini 2
چکیده [English]

1- Introdution
The main section of the old texture is related to qualitative and quantitative inadequacies of houses. Numerous factors has resulted in high demotion of qualitative and quantitative situation in these textures such as historical, cultural and economical factors. Whereas the house is addressed as thing further than housing (konap,1982:35). Therfore, the necessity of special glance to insufficiencies and inadequacies of house section in old texture can resulted in solving the great section of insufficiencies of this kind of textures.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the urban old- textures general Practical solutions for decreasing current problems and challenges and also using the potential of these textures to endogenous development. Studied area of old textures are cities including Sanandaj, Saghghez,Ghorveh, Marivan and Baneh as Most populous cities in Kurdistan.
2- Theortical bases
Overal, global theorists of urban old textures have addrssed to present their viewpoints in three poles of culturalism, functionalism and realism (Azizi,1379:38).
Overal, used politics in advanced countries have been (Reconstruction) in 1950s, (Renewal) in 1960s, (Revival) in 1970s, (Redevelopment) in 1980s and from 1990s (Recreation). Also, in developing countries following to advanced countries various actions have been done includings psychology, reformation, the revival of cultural, reformation and development (Poor-Ahmad & Kalantari,1385:26).

3- Disscution
1-3- Determinig the old texture in selected urban points
The scope of various kinds of old texture have been identified in selected cities of kurdistan province as following:
Baneh and Marivan cities have the highest percentage of historical kind from old texture among cities of the pronivce and Sagh-ghez and Ghorveh cities have the most percentage by more than 50 percentage of middle-texture kind from old texture. Also Babeh city by 39/7 percentage of marginal kind of the whole of old texture have the highest percetage from the texture.
2-3- Qualitative and Quantitative chracteristics of house in old texture of selected urban points.
Marivan city has the worst qualitative and quantitative situation and Ghorveh city has the best situation. The residential-refined-population average is 450 persons in hectare in old texture of selected cities and in the whole of scope of selected cities is 395 persons in hectare. This rate is very high in comparison with the population average of 40-yearly-period in country urban points which is equal to 233/3 persons in hectare (Ziari,162:1388).
Achieved per capitas residential is very low relative to per capitas standard and also the lack of residential units is very considerable in existing situation regarding to household standard to residential unit. More than 33 percentage in old texture have destructive and destroyed quality. And only 29/5 percentage have destructive and destroyed quality and 41 percentage have acceptable quality. In the mean time, valuable buildings include lower than 5 percentage in the both scopes.
3-3- Estimating the lack of house in urban texture
3-3-1- Estimating the lack of house by using of household index
In exsisting situation, in the scope of old texture, there are 11171 destructive units and 383 destroyed units that equal to 11554 on the whole. Also, in the whole of urban regions there are 27396 destructive units and 887 destroyed units that faced with the lack of hous, equal to 28283 in exsisting situation totally.
4- conclusion
The part of housing faces with the quality and quantity numerous existing problems so that we see more than 200 in comparison to country-average in housing Net mass index, the Shortage of 28 sq. per a person in residential land Capitation and we observe the 13 percentage difference in household index relative to Housing units. The balance of the shortage of housing unit result from Improvement of household index to housing unit is equivalent to 5609 units and the shortage result from the quality of Ruin and destruction is equivalent to 11554 units in old texture. The study of these indexes show that the whole of the shortage of housing in old-texture of selected cities is equivalent to 18063 units.
5- Proposals
3. The difference in area, Distribution, quantity and quality of buildings and the type of texture appears the necessity of the view according to the qualification of any city. Therefore, we must consider Strategies, policies and proportional administrative plans while paying attention to rehabilitation and reconstruction experiences of old textures in other worlds and in our country either. Rehabilitation and reconstruction of urban old texture can be considered as the main development strategy of intracity in Koordistan province especially in its great cities that they face with the problem of the high shortage of land physical development.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dilapidated Fabric
  • Historic Fabric
  • Middle Fabric
  • Unofficial Occupied Fabric
  • Quality of the Buildings